202201042037一行禪師:The Fullness of Emptiness 空性之萬有(三)我們並不受制於生死

一行禪師:The Fullness of Emptiness 空性之萬有

(三)我們並不受制於生死

 

BY THICH NHAT HANH| AUGUST 6, 2012     一行禪師 西元201286

一行禪師:空性之萬有The Fullness of Emptiness

(一)「在」就等於「相互而在」

https://blog.xuite.net/yeshi_tsogyal/twblog/561344192

(二) 空性不應令人畏懼

https://blog.xuite.net/yeshi_tsogyal/twblog/561326363



According to Avalokiteshvara, this sheet of paper is empty; but according to our analysis, it is full of everything. There seems to be a contradiction between our observation and his. Avalokita found the five skandhas empty. But empty of what? The key word is empty. To be empty is to be empty of something.

根據觀自在菩薩的說法,這張紙是空的;但根據我們的分析,這張紙充滿了一切。在我們的觀察與祂的觀察之間,似乎有著矛盾。觀自在菩薩發現五蘊皆空。不過,是什麼東西空了呢?關鍵字是空。空,意思是有個東西空了。

 

If I am holding a cup of water and I ask you, “Is this cup empty?” you will say, “No, it is full of water.” But if I pour out the water and ask you again, you may say, “Yes, it is empty.” But empty of what? Empty means empty of something. The cup cannot be empty of nothing. “Empty” doesn’t mean anything unless you know “empty of what?” My cup is empty of water, but it is not empty of air. To be empty is to be empty of something. This is quite a discovery. When Avalokita says that the five skandhas are equally empty, to help him be precise we must ask, “Mr. Avalokita, empty of what?”

如果我拿著一杯水,然後問你:「這個杯子是空的嗎?」你會說:「不,這杯子裡面都是水。」但如果我把水倒出來,再問你一次,你可能會說:「是的,是空的。」但,是什麼東西空了呢?空,指的是某種東西空了。杯子不可能空掉了無有一物。除非你知道「空掉了什麼」,否則那個「空」就沒有意義。我杯子裡的水空了,但並非空氣空了。空是某種東西空了。這實在是個挺大的發現。當觀自在菩薩說五蘊平等皆空時,為了幫助祂更精準表達,我們就必須問:「觀自在先生,請問是什麼東西空了?」

 

The five skandhas, which may be translated into English as five heaps, or five aggregates, are the five elements that comprise a human being. These five elements flow like a river in every one of us. In fact, these are really five rivers flowing together in us: the river of form, which means our bodies; the river of feelings; the river of perceptions; the river of mental formations; and the river of consciousness. They are always flowing in us. So according to Avalokita, when he looked deeply into the nature of these five rivers, he suddenly saw that all five are empty.

五蘊的英譯可以是五個堆積(five heaps)或五種聚集(five aggregates),此乃構成人類的五種元素。這五種元素在我們每個人當中,就如同河水一般地流動。事實上,於我們內在真的同時有五條河流在流動:形色(法)之河-指的是我們的身體;之河;知覺(法)之河;心意造作(動)之河;以及心之河。這些河流一直於我們內在流動著。所以根據觀自在的說法,當祂甚深觀照這五條河流的自性時,驀然見到了五蘊皆空。

 

If we ask, “Empty of what?” he has to answer. And this is what he said: “They are empty of a separate self.” That means none of these five rivers can exist by itself alone. Each of the five rivers has to be made by the other four. It has to coexist; it has to inter-be with all the others.

若問:「是甚麼空了?」祂便必須回答。接著祂會說:「它們空掉了獨立的自我。」意思是這五條河流無法以其自身而單獨存在。每一條河流都必須觀待於其他四條河流,必須共同存在;必須要和其他河流「相互而在」。

 

Emptiness” means empty of a separate self. It is full of everything.

「空性」指的是空掉了獨立的自我。它充滿了一切。

 

In our bodies we have lungs, heart, kidneys, stomach, and blood. None of these can exist independently. They can only coexist with the others. Your lungs and your blood are two things, but neither can exist separately. The lungs take in air and enrich the blood, and, in turn, the blood nourishes the lungs. Without the blood, the lungs cannot be alive, and without the lungs, the blood cannot be cleansed. Lungs and blood inter-are. The same is true with kidneys and blood, kidneys and stomach, lungs and heart, blood and heart, and so on.

在我們的身體中,有肺臟、心臟、腎臟、胃臟和血液。這些都無法獨立存在。只能與其他(器官)共存。你的肺臟和你的血液是兩種東西,但兩者都不能分別存在。肺臟吸入空氣並且滋養血液,反之,血液也滋養肺臟。沒有血液,肺臟無法存活,而沒有肺臟,血液也無法變得潔淨。肺臟和血液為「相互依存」(相互而在)對腎臟與血液、腎臟與胃臟、肺臟與心臟、血液與心臟等等來說,道理都是一樣的。


When Avalokita says that our sheet of paper is empty, he means it is empty of a separate, independent existence. It cannot just be by itself. It has to inter-be with the sunshine, the cloud, the forest, the logger, the mind, and everything else. It is empty of a separate self. But, empty of a separate self means full of everything. So it seems that our observation and that of Avalokita do not contradict each other after all. Avalokita looked deeply into the five skandhas of form, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness, and he discovered that none of them can be by itself alone. Each can only inter-be with all the others. So he tells us that form is empty. Form is empty of a separate self, but it is full of everything in the cosmos. The same is true with feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness.

當觀自在菩薩說我們的這張紙為空時,祂指的是空於一個分離、自主的存在。無法單獨以其自身而存在,必須要與陽光、雲朵、森林、伐木工、心和其他一切「相互依存」。這就是空於獨立的自我(所謂獨立之自我是空的)。因此,我們的觀察與觀自在菩薩的觀察,看來彼此根本沒有矛盾。觀自在菩薩甚深觀照色、受、想、行、識此五蘊,並發現這五者無一能獨自存在。每一項都只能與其他四者「相互依存」。所以祂告訴我們:色即是空。色法空於獨立的自我(色法的獨立自我是空的),但它充滿了宇宙中的一切。同理可知,受、想、行、識也是如此

 

 

Long Live Emptiness

空性長在

 

Listen, Shariputra,

form is emptiness, and emptiness is form.

Form is not other than emptiness, emptiness

is not other than form.

The same is true with feelings, perceptions,

mental formations, and consciousness.

舍利子,且諦聽。

色即是空。空即是色。

色不異空。空不異色。

受想行識。亦復如是。

 

Form is the wave and emptiness is the water. To understand this, we have to think differently than many of us who were raised in the West were trained to think. In the West, when we draw a circle, we consider it to be zero, nothingness. But in India and many other Asian countries, a circle means totality, wholeness. The meaning is the opposite. So “form is emptiness, and emptiness is form” is like wave is water, water is wave. “Form is not other than emptiness, emptiness is not other than form. The same is true with feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness,” because these contain each other. Because one exists, everything exists.

色法為波,空性為水。為了明白此點,我們必須用異於我們大多人在西方世界成長所受訓練的思維模式來思考。在西方世界,當我們畫了一個圓,我們認為那是零、空無一物。但在印度和許多亞洲的國家中,一個圓代表的是整體、完整的意思。意義是相對的。所以「色即是空,空即是色」便如波是水,水是波。「色不異空,空不異色。受想行識,亦復如是」,是因為它們彼此互相包含。這是由於一者在,諸法在。

 

In the Vietnamese literary canon, there are two lines of poetry by a twelfth-century Zen master of the Ly dynasty that say:

越南文學經典中,十二世紀李朝[1]的一位禪宗大師有兩行詩作:

 

If the cosmos exists, then the smallest speck

of dust exists.

If the smallest speck of dust doesn’t exist,

then the whole cosmos doesn’t exist.

若有宇宙,則有極微之微塵。

若無極微之微塵,亦無寰宇。

 

 

The poet means that the notions of existence and nonexistence are just created by our minds. He also said that “the entire cosmos can be put on the tip of a hair,” and “the sun and the moon can be seen in a mustard seed.” These images show us that one contains everything, and everything is just one.

詩人的意思是:有和無的概念,不過是我們的心所造。他也說:「髮端上可置寰宇」以及「芥子中能見日月」。這些意像所顯示的是:一法含諸法,而諸法即一法。

 

Because form is emptiness, form is possible. In form we find everything else—feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness. “Emptiness” means empty of a separate self. It is full of everything, full of life. The word “emptiness” should not scare us. It is a wonderful word. To be empty does not mean to be nonexistent. If the sheet of paper is not empty, how could the sunshine, the logger, and the forest come into it? How could it be a sheet of paper? The cup, in order to be empty, has to be there. Form, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness, in order to be empty of a separate self, have to be there.

由於色即是空,色法方為可能。在色法中,我們能找到所有其他的受、想、行、識「空性」指的是空於獨立的自我。它充滿了諸法,充滿了生命。「空性」這個詞不應該讓人害怕。這是個奇妙的詞。空的意思並非不存在。這張紙若非空的,陽光、伐木工人、森林,要如何進入這張紙?它如何能成為一張紙?杯子必須在那兒,才能成為空的。色、受、想、行、識必須在那兒,才能空於獨立自我。

 

Emptiness is the ground of everything. “Thanks to emptiness, everything is possible.” That is a declaration made by Nagarjuna, a Buddhist philosopher of the second century. Emptiness is quite an optimistic concept. If I am not empty, I cannot be here. And if you are not empty, you cannot be there. Because you are there, I can be here. This is the true meaning of emptiness. Form does not have a separate existence. Avalokita wants us to understand this point.

空性是諸法之基。「幸虧有空性,一切皆可能。」這是由西元二世紀一位佛教哲學家龍樹尊者所做出的聲明。空性是一種相當樂觀的概念。假如我不是空的,我就不可能在這裡。然後如果你不是空的,你也不會在那裡。就因為你在那裡,所以我能在這裡。這就是空性的真正意義。色法並不具有獨立的存在。觀自在菩薩是想要我們瞭解這一點。

 

Happy Continuation

存續快樂

 

Listen, Shariputra, all dharmas are marked

with emptiness.

They are neither produced nor destroyed.

舍利子,且諦聽。

是諸法空相。

不生不滅。

 

Dharmas in this line means “things.” A human being is a dharma. A tree is a dharma. A cloud is a dharma. The sunshine is a dharma. Everything that can be conceived of is a dharma. So when we say, “All dharmas are marked with emptiness,” we are saying, “Everything has emptiness as its own nature.” And that is why everything can be. There is a lot of joy in this statement. It means nothing can be born, nothing can die. Avalokita has said something extremely important.

諸法在這裡指的是「事物」。一個人是法。一棵樹也是法。一片雲是法。陽光也是法。能被構思設想的一切,都是法。所以當我們說:「是諸法空相」(一切法皆以空性為特徵),我們說的是:「諸法的自性為空性」。此即是萬法能成為萬法之因。在這個敘述中,有著許多的喜悅。意思是無可生、無可死。觀自在菩薩說出了某件極其重要的事。

 

 

Every day in our lives, we see birth and we see death. When a person is born, a birth certificate is printed for them. After they die, a death certificate is made. These certificates confirm the existence of birth and death. But Avalokita said, “No, there is no birth and death.” We have to look more deeply to see whether his statement is true. What is the date on which you were born, your birth date? Before that date, did you already exist? Were you already there before you were born? Let me help you. To be born means from nothing you become something. My question is, before you were born, were you already there?

生命中的每一天,我們都會看到出生和死亡。有人出生,就為他們印製出生證明。有人死亡,則印製死亡證明。這些證明確認了出生與死亡的存在。但是觀自在菩薩說:「不生不滅」。我們必須更深入瞭解這個講法的真實性。你的出生日期在什麼時候?你的生日是幾月幾號?在那個特定日期之前,你已經存在了嗎?在你出生前,你已經存在了嗎?讓我來幫助你。出生指的是你從虛無成為某個存有。我的問題是,在你出生前,你已經存在了嗎?

 

Suppose a hen is about to lay an egg. Before she gives birth, do you think the egg is already there? Yes, of course. It is inside. You also were inside before you were outside. That means that before you were born, you already existed—inside your mother. The fact is that if something is already there, it does not need to be born. To be born means from nothing you become something. If you are already something, what is the use of being born?

假設有隻母雞快要下蛋了。在牠下蛋前,你認為這顆蛋已經在那兒了嗎?當然是。蛋已經在母雞體內了。同樣的,在你來到外面[這個世界]前,你已經在裡面了。那意味著在你出生前,你已經存在了—─在你母親的體內。事實上,如果某個存有已經在那兒,就不需要被出生來。出生指的是你從虛無成為某個存有。如果你已經是某個存有,又何必要被出生來呢?

 

So, your so-called birthday is really your continuation day. The next time you celebrate, you can say, “Happy Continuation Day.” I think that we may have a better concept of when we were born. If we go back nine months to the time of our conception, we have a better date to put on our birth certificates. In China, and also in Vietnam, when you are born, you are already considered one year old. So we say we begin to be at the time of our conception in our mother’s womb, and we write down that date on our birth certificate.

因此,所謂的生日其實是你的存續日。下次要慶生時,你可以說:「存續日快樂」。我想這對我們[究竟]何時出生,會是個更好的概念。若能回到九個月前受孕的時候,我們的出生證明便可填入一個更好的日期。在中國與越南,當你出生時,你被認為已經一歲了。我們說自己是在母親子宮受孕時開始存在的,所以要在出生證明上寫下受孕日期。

 

But the question remains: Even before that date, did you exist or not? If you say “yes,” I think you are correct. Before your conception, you were there already, maybe half in your father, half in your mother. Because from nothing, we can never become something. Can you name one thing that was once a nothing? A cloud? Do you think that a cloud can be born out of nothing? Before becoming a cloud, it was water, maybe flowing as a river. It was not nothing. Do you agree?

然而問題依舊還在:即使在那個日期前,你是否已經存在了?如果你說「 是」,我想你是正確的。在你入胎前,你已經存在了,也許一半在你父親裡面、一半在你母親裡面。因為我們不可能從虛無變成某個存有。你能說出有任何事物是從虛無來的嗎?一片雲?你認為一片雲可以無中生有嗎?在成為一片雲前,本來是水,也許是一條流動之河。並非空空如也。你同意嗎?

 

We cannot conceive of the birth of anything. There is only continuation. Please look back even further and you will see that you not only exist in your father and mother, but you also exist in your grandparents and your great-grandparents. As I look more deeply, I can see that in a former life I was a cloud. This is not poetry; it is science. Why do I say that in a former life I was a cloud? Because I am still a cloud. Without the cloud, I cannot be here. I am the cloud, the river, and the air at this very moment, so I know that in the past I have been a cloud, a river, and the air. And I was a rock. I was the minerals in the water. This is not a question of belief in reincarnation. This is the history of life on Earth. We have been gas, sunshine, water, fungi, and plants. We have been single-celled beings. The Buddha said that in one of his former lives, he was a tree. He was a fish; he was a deer. These are not superstitious things. Every one of us has been a cloud, a deer, a bird, a fish, and we continue to be these things, not just in former lives.

我們無法構想任何事物的誕生,一切只有存續。請回溯更久以前,便會看到,你不只存在於雙親裡面,還存在於祖父母與曾祖父母裡面。當我更深入觀照時,我可以看見,我的某個前世是一片雲。這並不是詩作;這是科學。我為什麼說自己的某個前世是一片雲呢?因為我現在仍然是一片雲。若沒有那片雲,我便無法在這裡。由於我是那片雲、那條河,也是此時此刻的空氣,所以我知道自己過去曾是一片雲、一條河,以及那個空氣。我也曾是一塊岩石。我曾是水中的礦物質。這無關乎是否相信轉世。這是地球的生命史。我們一直是空氣、陽光、水、菌類以及植物。我們也一直是單細胞生物。佛陀說,在祂諸多前世中,某一世曾為一棵樹。祂曾是一尾魚;祂曾是一頭鹿。這些並非迷信。我們每個人不僅在前世是一片雲、一頭鹿、一隻鳥、一尾魚,我們也會持續一直都是。

 

This is not just the case with birth. Nothing can be born, and also nothing can die. That is what Avalokita said. Do you think that a cloud can die? To die means that from something you become nothing. Do you think that we can make something a nothing? Let us go back to our sheet of paper. We may have the illusion that to destroy it, all we have to do is light a match and burn it up. But if we burn a sheet of paper, some of it will become smoke, and the smoke will rise and continue to be. The heat that is caused by the burning paper will enter into the cosmos and penetrate other things. The heat is the next life of the paper. The ash that is formed will become part of the soil, and the sheet of paper, in his or her next life, might be a cloud and a rose at the same time. We have to be very careful and attentive in order to realize that this sheet of paper has never been born and it will never die. It can take on other forms of being, but we are not capable of transforming a sheet of paper into nothingness. Everything is like that, even you and I. We are not subject to birth and death.

這不僅對出生來說是如此。既然無可生,也就無可死。此即觀自在菩薩所說的(不生不滅)。你覺得一片雲會死嗎?死亡指的是你從某個存有變成虛無。你認為我們能夠讓某個存有變成虛無嗎?讓我們回來說我們的這張紙。我們或許會有個錯覺,認為若要摧毀這張紙,只需要點一根火柴,便能把這張紙燒光了。但是如果我們真的燒了一張紙,紙的一部分會變成煙,而煙會裊裊升起並持續存在。燃燒紙張所產生的熱能會進入宇宙,穿透到其他的事物中。這張紙的來生就是熱能。產生的灰燼會變成土壤的一部分,然後這張紙在其來生中,或許會同時成為一片雲及一朵玫瑰。我們必須非常謹慎和專注,才會領悟到這張紙是從未生,亦絕不死的。這張紙可以成為其他型態的存有,但我們無法將它轉變成虛無。萬事萬物皆如此,就連你我也一樣。我們並不受制於生死。

 



[1] 李朝(越南語:Nhà),是越南史上的一個朝代,因該朝君主姓李而得名,歷經九代君主,凡217年。

 

~摘譯自   https://www.lionsroar.com/the-fullness-of-emptiness/    

~普賢法譯小組Misty翻譯 / Serena 校對,全篇待續

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