200704292115翻譯寫作 (102):全球暖化

1. 日益惡化的全球暖化現象的起因有很多,而最主要的是:大規模的砍伐森林、使用石油或天然氣而導致的空氣污染、不正常的太陽活動等等。
The factors responsible for the increasingly aggravating phenomenon of global warming are many, the most important of which are massive deforestation, air contamination through the use of oil and natural gas, abnormal solar activities, and so on.
【注意】(i) the factor in N. = the cause of N. = the reason for N. ...的原因
例:The factors in greenhouse effect are complex. 溫室效應的成因很複雜。
(ii) responsible for 在此為 which are responsible for 的簡化,此處翻為「導致」而不是「負責任」。
例:Tell me the reasons responsible for her illness. 告訴我導致她生病的原因。
(iii) increasingly = more and more 越來越
(iv) aggravating = worsening = deteriorating (正)惡化的
(v) phenomenon = phen (顯現) + nomen (名稱) + -on (名詞字尾) ==> (n.C)現象
注意:複數是 phenomena!
(vi) 用 the most important of which 而不能用 the most important of them 因為這個句子缺連接詞。
例:I have four brothers, all of whom are friendly. 我有四個兄弟,全都很和善。
(vii) through the use of N. = by using N. 因...的使用
例:Through the use of the Internet, we communicate more easily.
藉由網路的使用,我們溝通更容易了。
(viii) and so on 就是 and so forth,前面一定要打逗點。

2. 無論原因為何,人類繁榮的都市文明是主要的罪魁禍首,因為二氧化碳以及甲烷的排放是導致溫室效應和臭氧層破壞的主因 -- 更別忘了,台灣在這一項上排名是不落人後的。
Whatever the causes, prosperous human urban civilization is the chief culprit, for the emission of carbon dioxide and methane is the principal reason for greenhouse effect and the damage done to ozone layer -- don't forget, Taiwan ranks as high as others in this field.
【注意】(i) whatever the causes = whatever the causes are
注意:在「無論」的句型中,如果動詞是 be 動詞,則可以省略。
例:Whatever his answer, I won't believe him. 不管他的答案為何,我都不相信他。
(ii) prosperous = thriving = flourishing 繁華的、興盛的
(iii) urban civilization 都市文明 --> urban 是 city 的形容詞。
(iv) culprit 是「壞事肇因者」,此處不宜用 criminal,因為排放二氧化碳並不算「犯罪」。
同字根單字:culpable (adj.)應受譴責的、exculpate (vt.)洗刷...的罪名。
(v) for 可以代替 because,但只能用在句中。
(vi) emit = e- (向外) + mit (傳送) ==> (vt.)排放、噴
同字根單字:admit、commit、remit、transmit、omit、permit...等。
(vii) methane (甲烷) 排放的元兇為 livestock industry 或 animal husbandry (畜牧業)。
(viii)principal = chief = main = major = primary 主要的
(ix) the damage done to = the damage which is done to 對...造成的破壞
注意:do damage / harm to N. 對...破壞
例:Humans do much harm to environment. 人類對環境作許多破壞。
(x) rank (vt.)評價、排列 (vi.)位於...名
例:I rank this movie as great. 我認為這部電影很棒。
(xi) field = area 領域

3. 而這個氣候劇烈的變遷引發許多可怕的後果,如越來越多的熱浪、冰河融化、水位上升、沿海地區受水患威脅、作物遭受改變。簡而言之,整個動植物群都危如累卵。
Such drastic climatic changes trigger many heinous consequences, such as increasing heat waves, glacier and ice melting, rising sea levels, coastal regions threatened by floods, and varied crops. In brief, the flora and fauna are at stake.
【注意】(i) 此處的 changes 為複數名詞,因此只能用 such,不能用 so。
例:They are such tall boys. 他們是這麼地高。
(ii) drastic (adj.)急遽的、重大的
(iii) trigger 本意為名詞「(槍)扳機」,在此衍生為「引發」,相當於 lead to 或 result in。
(iv) heinous = gruesome = terrible = horrible = terrifying 可怕的
(v) such as 為介係詞片語,因此後面都接名詞,動詞都改為分詞。
(vi) heat wave 是「熱浪」,而 cold front 是「寒流、冷鋒」。
(vii) 小心「冰河融化」是主動的自然現象,因此是 melting 不是 melted。
(viii) 「(地理的)區域」要用 region,而「行政區」是 district,「特別區域」是 zone。
(ix) vary 可以是及物或不及物動詞,都是「改變」的意思。
(x) in brief = in a word = in a nutshell = in conclusion = in sum = to sum up 總之、簡言之
(xi) the flora and fauna (所有)動植物(總稱)
(xii) at stake 做為賭注
例:Don't you know that your life is at stake? 你不曉得你有生命危險?

4. 事實上,科學家估計可能的影響還遠超過這樣,因為動植物及昆蟲的遷徙會形成更嚴重的傳染疾病和許多物種的消失。說是對全球生物圈造成浩劫一點也不為過。
As a matter of fact, scientists estimate that the possible impacts are far more severe than all these. It is because the migration of animals, plants, and insects will form graver epidemics and cause the extinction of many species. It is no exaggeration to say that it is a catastrophe to biological sphere.
【注意】(i) as a matter of fact = in reality = in effect = in practice 事實上
(ii) estimate = e- (向外) + stim (刺、挑) + -ate (動詞) ==> (vt.)估計
同字根單字:sting、distinguish、extinguish...等。
(iii) impact = effect = influence 影響
注意:have an impact / effect / influence on N. 對...造成影響
(iv) severe = serious = disastrous = ruinous = grave 嚴重的
(v) all these 指的是第三句列出來的全部後果。
(vi) migrate (vi.)遷徙 --> immigrate (vi.)遷入、emigrate (vi.)遷出。
(vii) epidemic = infectious disease 傳染病
(viii) extinction of species 物種消失 --> 不要用 disappearance。
注意:species 單複數同型!
(ix) It is no exaggeration to Vr. = It is never exaggerated to Vr. 去...絕不會誇張
例:It's never exaggerated to call him a moron. 說他是個智障一點都不誇張。
(x) catastrophe 比 disaster 更嚴重,前者是「浩劫」,後者是「災難」。
(xi) sphere 指「領域、範圍」,而 northern hemisphere 為「北半球」。

5. 縱然我們能做得很有限,我們仍應盡力去減少能源浪費和多用較乾淨的替代能源、多利用大眾運輸工具、以及植樹或造林。終究,只要每個人都盡到本分,環境保育還是可能達成的。
Little though we can do, we still should go to great lengths to minimize the consumption of energy and use cleaner alternative resources more, make more use of public transportation, and plant trees or make forests. In the final analysis, as long as everyone does their bit, environmental conservation is likely to be achieved.
【注意】(i) Little though we can do = Though we can do little 縱然我們能做的很少
例:Short as I am, I am popular with girls. 縱然我很矮,但還是受到女生歡迎。
(ii) go to great lengths = go all out = do one's best = exert oneself 盡力而為
例:She exerted herself to achieve fame. 她盡一切可能去獲得名望。
(iii) minimize (vt.)將...減至最少 <----> maximize (vt.)將...擴至最大
例:You ought to maximize your potential. 你該將潛能發揮至最大。
(iv) alternative resources = renewable energies 替代資源
如:solar energy 太陽能、generation of electricity through water 水力發電...等。
(v) more 可以是副詞,修飾前面的動詞 use。
(vi) make use of N. = take advantage of N. = utilize N. 利用...
例:I'm learning to utilize computers to work. 我在學習用電腦工作。
(vii) transportation 是「交通設施」,而 traffic 是「交通狀況」。
(viii) in the final analysis = after all 終究
(ix) do one's bit / share 盡...的本分
例:You're a student, so do your bit and study well.
你是個學生,因此盡好本分,把書念好吧。
(x) environmental conservation 環境保育
(xi) 主詞如果不是虛主詞 it,「可能」就只能用 likely,不可用 possible 或 probable。
例:He is likely to come. = It is possible for him to come.
= It is probable that he will come. 他有可能會來。
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