201508161622終戰70週年 民報



Full Text: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s World War II Statement


Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, center, and wife Akie, behind him, pay respects at the grave of his late father and Foreign Minister Shintaro Abe in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, on Friday.

Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on Friday released a statement marking 70 years since the end of World War II.

The statement had been watched closely by neighboring countries on whether it would include an apology for Japan’s wartime acts as expressed by its past leaders. Former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama, who issued a groundbreaking statement in 1995, had also called on Mr. Abe to sincerely apologize for the country’s wartime aggression.

The statement was released simultaneously in English and Japanese, and it is to be translated into Korean and Chinese soon. Here is the full text of the English version, as released by the prime minister’s office:

Statement by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

Cabinet Decision

On the 70th anniversary of the end of the war, we must calmly reflect upon the road to war, the path we have taken since it ended, and the era of the 20th century. We must learn from the lessons of history the wisdom for our future.

More than one hundred years ago, vast colonies possessed mainly by the Western powers stretched out across the world. With their overwhelming supremacy in technology, waves of colonial rule surged toward Asia in the 19th century. There is no doubt that the resultant sense of crisis drove Japan forward to achieve modernization. Japan built a constitutional government earlier than any other nation in Asia. The country preserved its independence throughout. The Japan-Russia War gave encouragement to many people under colonial rule from Asia to Africa.

After World War I, which embroiled the world, the movement for self-determination gained momentum and put brakes on colonization that had been underway. It was a horrible war that claimed as many as ten million lives. With a strong desire for peace stirred in them, people founded the League of Nations and brought forth the General Treaty for Renunciation of War. There emerged in the international community a new tide of outlawing war itself.

At the beginning, Japan, too, kept steps with other nations. However, with the Great Depression setting in and the Western countries launching economic blocs by involving colonial economies, Japan’s economy suffered a major blow. In such circumstances, Japan’s sense of isolation deepened and it attempted to overcome its diplomatic and economic deadlock through the use of force. Its domestic political system could not serve as a brake to stop such attempts. In this way, Japan lost sight of the overall trends in the world.

With the Manchurian Incident, followed by the withdrawal from the League of Nations, Japan gradually transformed itself into a challenger to the new international order that the international community sought to establish after tremendous sacrifices. Japan took the wrong course and advanced along the road to war.

And, seventy years ago, Japan was defeated.

On the 70th anniversary of the end of the war, I bow my head deeply before the souls of all those who perished both at home and abroad. I express my feelings of profound grief and my eternal, sincere condolences.

More than three million of our compatriots lost their lives during the war: on the battlefields worrying about the future of their homeland and wishing for the happiness of their families; in remote foreign countries after the war, in extreme cold or heat, suffering from starvation and disease. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the air raids on Tokyo and other cities, and the ground battles in Okinawa, among others, took a heavy toll among ordinary citizens without mercy.

Also in countries that fought against Japan, countless lives were lost among young people with promising futures. In China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and elsewhere that became the battlefields, numerous innocent citizens suffered and fell victim to battles as well as hardships such as severe deprivation of food. We must never forget that there were women behind the battlefields whose honour and dignity were severely injured.

Upon the innocent people did our country inflict immeasurable damage and suffering. History is harsh. What is done cannot be undone. Each and every one of them had his or her life, dream, and beloved family. When I squarely contemplate this obvious fact, even now, I find myself speechless and my heart is rent with the utmost grief.

The peace we enjoy today exists only upon such precious sacrifices. And therein lies the origin of postwar Japan.

We must never again repeat the devastation of war.

Incident, aggression, war — we shall never again resort to any form of the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes. We shall abandon colonial rule forever and respect the right of self-determination of all peoples throughout the world.

With deep repentance for the war, Japan made that pledge. Upon it, we have created a free and democratic country, abided by the rule of law, and consistently upheld that pledge never to wage a war again. While taking silent pride in the path we have walked as a peace-loving nation for as long as seventy years, we remain determined never to deviate from this steadfast course.

Japan has repeatedly expressed the feelings of deep remorse and heartfelt apology for its actions during the war. In order to manifest such feelings through concrete actions, we have engraved in our hearts the histories of suffering of the people in Asia as our neighbours: those in Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines, and Taiwan, the Republic of Korea and China, among others; and we have consistently devoted ourselves to the peace and prosperity of the region since the end of the war.

Such position articulated by the previous cabinets will remain unshakable into the future.

However, no matter what kind of efforts we may make, the sorrows of those who lost their family members and the painful memories of those who underwent immense sufferings by the destruction of war will never be healed.

Thus, we must take to heart the following.

The fact that more than six million Japanese repatriates managed to come home safely after the war from various parts of the Asia-Pacific and became the driving force behind Japan’s postwar reconstruction; the fact that nearly three thousand Japanese children left behind in China were able to grow up there and set foot on the soil of their homeland again; and the fact that former POWs of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia and other nations have visited Japan for many years to continue praying for the souls of the war dead on both sides.

How much emotional strugglemust have existed and what great efforts must have been necessary for the Chinese people who underwent all the sufferings of the war and for the former POWs who experienced unbearable sufferings caused by the Japanese military in order for them to be so tolerant nevertheless?

That is what we must turn our thoughts to reflect upon.

Thanks to suchmanifestation of tolerance, Japan was able to return to the international community in the postwar era. Taking this opportunity of the 70th anniversary of the end of the war, Japan would like to express its heartfelt gratitude to all the nations and all the people who made every effort for reconciliation.

In Japan, the postwar generations now exceed eighty per cent of its population. We must not let our children, grandchildren, and even further generations to come, who have nothing to do with that war, be predestined to apologize. Still, even so, we Japanese, across generations, must squarely face the history of the past. We have the responsibility to inherit the past, in all humbleness, and pass it on to the future.

Our parents’ and grandparents’ generations were able to survive in a devastated land in sheer poverty after the war. The future they brought about is the one our current generation inherited and the one we will hand down to the next generation. Together with the tireless efforts of our predecessors, this has only been possible through the goodwill and assistance extended to us that transcended hatred by a truly large number of countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European nations, which Japan had fiercely fought against as enemies.

We must pass this down from generation to generation into the future. We have the great responsibility to take the lessons of history deeply into our hearts, to carve out a better future, and to make all possible efforts for the peace and prosperity of Asia and the world.

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when Japan attempted to break its deadlock with force. Upon this reflection, Japan will continue to firmly uphold the principle that any disputes must be settled peacefully and diplomatically based on the respect for the rule of law and not through the use of force, and to reach out to other countries in the world to do the same. As the only country to have ever suffered the devastation of atomic bombings during war, Japan will fulfil its responsibility in the international community, aiming at the non-proliferation and ultimate abolition of nuclear weapons.

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when the dignity and honour of many women were severely injured during wars in the 20th century. Upon this reflection, Japan wishes to be a country always at the side of such women’s injured hearts. Japan will lead the world in making the 21st century an era in which women’s human rights are not infringed upon.

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when forming economic blocs made the seeds of conflict thrive. Upon this reflection, Japan will continue to develop a free, fair and open international economic system that will not be influenced by the arbitrary intentions of any nation. We will strengthen assistance for developing countries, and lead the world toward further prosperity. Prosperity is the very foundation for peace. Japan will make even greater efforts to fight against poverty, which also serves as a hotbed of violence, and to provide opportunities for medical services, education, and self-reliance to all the people in the world.

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when Japan ended up becoming a challenger to the international order. Upon this reflection, Japan will firmly uphold basic values such as freedom, democracy, and human rights as unyielding values and, by working hand in hand with countries that share such values, hoist the flag of “Proactive Contribution to Peace,” and contribute to the peace and prosperity of the world more than ever before.

Heading toward the 80th, the 90th and the centennial anniversary of the end of the war, we are determined to create such a Japan together with the Japanese people.

August 14, 2015
Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan


自由廣場》傑出演說 談安倍的終戰紀念文

◎ 雲程


安 倍從日俄戰爭論起,頗為適當。明治維新後日本國力尚弱,當時俄羅斯東擴,日本確處在生死存亡之秋。因此高橋是清遠赴倫敦發行戰債籌措經費;小村壽太郎透過 英日同盟,讓英國封鎖土耳其海峽阻擋黑海艦隊增援;明石元二郎在俄國暗中策動反政府運動;將領大膽使用「丁字戰法」及其他戰法。雖有乃木希典在二○三高地 犯下錯誤,但日本在一連串機運下仍打勝俄國。日本深知若讓俄國透過西伯利亞鐵路增援,必將滅國,即請美國老羅斯福總統適時斡旋,而劃下句點。此機運成分日 本高層知之甚詳,故不索求賠償。但在國內卻宣傳為天下無敵,從此民族主義不斷鼓譟,遂逐漸犯下大錯。


相 對於美英加紐澳與東南亞各國,中韓兩國仍指日本缺乏「誠摯道歉」。中韓兩國的治國基礎乃民族主義—缺乏敵人,便不知如何經營下去。因此,兩國非常恐懼其戰 勝國的光環鈍化消退,總是「萬山不許一溪奔」。《紐約時報》整理歷年日本道歉文句,凸顯日本道歉無止境的窘境。在現實政治,戰後日本除已放棄國外的公私財 產並履行條約的正式賠償外,還以技術與海外援助方式呈現,雖不知戰爭賠償是否完成,但補償數額確實龐大。安倍以「這些歷代內閣的立場今後也將是堅定不移 的…我們不能讓與戰爭毫無關係的子孫後代擔負起繼續道歉的宿命」承諾未來。






 2015-08-16 06:00 民報社論


昨天是二戰結束七十週年,日本安倍首相發表世界關注的講話。在其中,安倍表示對包括台灣在內等日本亞洲鄰國 所走過痛苦的歷史銘記在心,並在戰後一直致力於這些國家的和平與繁榮。只是當日本首相的終戰七十週年文告特別提到台灣,且將其與中國分開,把台灣當成一個 國家對待時,但台灣政府與朝野主要政黨卻沒對終戰七十年有任何表示。台灣對二戰出現了集體失憶狀況!

二 戰還沒有離開台灣:台灣的國際法地位至今未定,但中華民國卻在台灣吃香喝辣了七十年。既然連台灣是不是中華民國的都有法律爭議,那麼當時根據盟軍指令來台 接收日本受降,但演變到後來變成賴在台灣不走的中華民國政府,是否在法律上還是在實施二戰的聯軍管束命令,否則要如何解釋它還在台灣的現實呢?而台灣在二 戰後所受到種種國民黨獨裁戒嚴與恐怖統治,以及因國共內戰而使台海成為東亞火藥庫等際遇,都是因二戰後的種種處理或不處理而出現的,我們可以說,只要「國 民黨政府在台灣的未定地位」一天沒有處理,二戰在台灣就沒有結束。台灣七十年來有終戰沒和平,以及從終戰變中佔的狀況也還會持續。


有 人說台灣沒對二戰出現集體失憶,不是馬政府有「抗戰七十年紀念」嗎?但請問台灣當時是在慶祝抗日勝利,還是作為戰敗國的一部份而在接受後果呢?台灣不是有 二十多萬人做為日本軍人或隨軍之軍屬嗎?還有三萬人戰歿在東南亞與南太地區嗎?當政府在紀念抗戰時,實際上是在紀念如何擊敗,殺退這些人。這些不是台灣人 的先人嗎!他們的死難就該是一個二戰敗者的統計註腳嗎,他們的後代子孫應該去參與一個紀念殺伐其先人的儀式嗎?


這 個貌似進步的史觀有個最大問題,就是認為因台灣處於日本殖民統治,所以只有抗日才是正確的,不抗日者要嘛就是被壓制到不敢抗日,而效忠日本者都是出賣台灣 同胞的「台奸」。在此觀點下,沒有「志願」向天皇效忠的台灣兵,志願者「必須是」非志願。因此對於台籍日本兵,這些當年踴躍報考成為日本兵的台籍「志願 兵」,先天上就是政治不正確的存在。這些人要嘛本身已被洗腦,不具備自己的想法,或是本身有嚴重的道德瑕疵。這些日治時代的台籍日本兵-基本上是我們的祖 父母或曾祖父母輩,他們成為被集體強制消音的一代,如果當中有人不幸戰歿,他們的存在與故事,就更沒有人知道了。

在 「抗日正確」的大旗下,過去七十年來在數十萬台灣家庭中,永遠存在一塊祖父母與兒孫無法觸及的情感禁區,是祖父母無法與兒孫分享的生命經驗。當小孩在看有 關二戰電影時,大概不知道他們的曾祖父或叔公有可能就埋骨在硫磺島、參與拉包爾空戰、或與美軍在菲律賓雷伊泰灣激戰吧!當歐美國家可以針對二戰議題每年有 不同的電影開拍,其家戶子孫可以對父祖當年參加什麼連隊、參與什麼戰役如數家珍,但台灣的二戰經驗卻只是在黑暗角落的幾張泛黃照片,甚至台籍日本「志願 兵」被當成沒有靈魂,沒有腦袋的皇民狗。請問這是多麼令人悲傷,且令人憤怒的狀態啊!

如果台灣要往 前走,要達到族群和解,在台灣發生的歷史就必需要被「如實的尊重」,不要用任何「抗X」的主旋律企圖教育這些人-我們的先祖,認為他們的選擇其實不是選 擇,而是被強迫或誘騙。如果要問什麼叫做統治者的暴力,這就是最活生生的暴力-逼使你否認你當時作出選擇的動機,等於是要現在的我去否定當時的我。不管是 對台籍日本「志願」兵也罷,或是有所謂「志願」的慰安婦也罷,爭論志願的道德性是本質錯誤的問題。重點是要先讓歷史有機會出土,且如實的了解歷史,拿大敘 事與道德律令壓人,不是在尊重歷史,更不是尊重我們的先人,而是暴力!

紀念台灣在二戰期間的歷史經 驗,也是為我們整代被強制失音的先人盡孝。不管他們在那時做了什麼,或是做出我們可能不認同的選擇,但事出必有因,重現當年的事實,了解他們做出選擇的理 由,讓事實本身去彰顯,就是對先人的重要榮耀,這是在盡孝道,達到家內的代間和解,也是在幫助今天的我們了解自己。




文/傅星福 2015-07-04 16:20


今年是二次大戰結束70週年,這70年的時間,東亞的局勢已經完全不同。當年在太平洋上廝殺最激烈的美、日 兩國,戰後成為西太平洋最堅定的軍事同盟,甚至在今年合作訂定了新版的「防衛合作指針」,美國太平洋司令也由日裔的將領出任;但另一方面,中、韓對於右派 色彩濃厚的日本首相安倍預計發表的終戰紀念演說特別關注。同時日本今年新訂定的歷史教科書中關於二戰過程的描述,以及預計將國內23個明治時代的工業革命 遺產登記為世界文化遺產,都引起中、韓的抗議。再加上原本就是敏感問題的靖國神社、慰安婦等二戰遺留的爭議,二戰對於中、日、韓三國關係的影響,短時間內 仍無法解決。


在 兩岸,馬英九已同意國防部7月在湖口舉行「抗戰勝利70週年」戰力展示,北京則預計9月在天安門廣場舉行大型的閱兵儀式。兩岸舉辦這種閱兵活動被視為爭奪 二戰勝利話語權的一部分,同時間,台灣內部關於二戰也有不同的聲音,被討論最多的當然就是二戰時期身為日本殖民地的台灣,到底是戰勝國還是戰敗國?

台 灣到底是屬於戰勝國或戰敗國,近日已經有許多文章討論,在此無意討論這問題,我想討論的是,關於二戰,21世紀地球村的人類該紀念的是戰爭本身的「勝 敗」,或是戰爭的「結束」?在歐洲,基於德國對於二戰歷史的反省以及轉型正義的落實,要現在的歐洲人繼續計較70年前的戰爭恩怨已經沒有太大意義,不論勝 敗,法國與德國的二戰老兵可以在諾曼地的攤頭上握手擁抱,一同希望世界不再有戰爭,不再有更多的生命在戰爭中消逝。基於目前歐洲聯盟的精神,以及人類追求 和平的普世價值,歐洲普遍已經不再紀念二戰「勝利」,而是紀念二戰的「結束」。

美國今與日本亞洲同盟  不會強調二戰勝利

1945 年的太平洋,硫磺島和沖繩島戰役之後,美國已經做好登陸日本的準備,日本也幾乎難逃戰敗的命運,但是美國在硫磺島傷亡約2萬6千人,沖繩島戰役更增加到4 萬8千人,是硫磺島和瓜達爾卡納爾島的兩倍,若要繼續登陸日本本土,將造成更多美國子弟的死傷。這時候杜魯門總統思考的已經不是如何取得戰爭的「勝利」, 而是如何「結束」戰爭,為了避免更多美國士兵傷亡,杜魯門選擇在廣島與長崎丟下原子彈,結束戰爭。時至今日,日本已經是美國在亞洲最堅強的同盟,美國不 會,也不需要再去強調二戰的「勝利」。

但是中、韓兩國因為在領土問題以及歷史的認知上,與日本有一 道幾乎無法跨越的鴻溝,只要一提到日本二戰的責任問題,或是日本自衛隊有任何擴權的行為,中、韓兩國不論是民間或官方,都會提出嚴正的抗議。尤其中國在崛 起的過程中,民族主義是北京不能缺少的手段之一,對台灣問題是如此,對日本也是如此。中國針對安倍即將發表的終戰紀念演說提出關切,以及批評日本藉由修憲 達成自衛隊擴權,9月天安門廣場以「世界反法西斯戰爭暨中國人民抗日戰爭勝利70週年」為名舉行大型的閱兵儀式,都是中國藉由對日抗戰的話題,激揚中國內 部的民族情緒,藉此獲得國內人民的支持。但是,在台灣的中華民國呢?

擴大辦抗戰勝利70週年  不符世界潮流

馬 英九政府因為大中國本位的意識形態,所以要擴大辦理慶祝「抗戰勝利70週年」,此舉除了不符合台灣本位的歷史邏輯之外,也不符合世界潮流。戰爭會帶來人員 的傷亡、家庭的破碎,人類歷史上許多違反人性的行為都是發生在戰爭的時候。不論是1937年在大陸的中華民國,或是1945年的殖民地台灣,都是戰爭的受 害者,因此,當前在台灣的中華民國政府應該是以戰爭的受害者為本位,紀念戰爭的「結束」,希望世界上不會再有國家被武力入侵,不再有人民被迫參加不屬於自 己的戰爭,不再有國家成為戰爭的受害者,這對於70年後依然暗潮洶湧的西太平洋才能帶來和平且正面的意義,而不是以「戰勝國」的姿態去回顧這段歷史。

更 有甚者,因為台灣教育長期以來過度強調「對日抗戰」的重要,使得21世紀的今日,仍有台灣人以為二次大戰轟炸台灣的是日本的軍隊,甚至作為傳播資訊的記者 也曾發生這種低級的錯誤。政府與其舉辦這種不切實際的武力展示,不如落實以台灣為本位的歷史教育,不要再讓台灣人呈現一種歷史文盲的狀態。至於歷史教育跟 課綱該怎麼編輯審定,則又是另一個問題了。





民報 2015-05-30 06:00

今年是二戰結束七十年,全世界的紀念活動陸續展開,台灣卻出現極端荒謬的景象。馬政府要搞湖口閱兵紀念抗日 勝利七十年,中國在九月三日弄了一個抗日暨反法西斯鬥爭七十年的擴大慶祝活動。被國民黨長期抹煞台灣歷史的世代們,也在跟著慶祝抗日,甚至還有人云亦云說 她們在二戰時,被疏散到台灣鄉間躲避日機轟炸。在這個眾口鑠金, 積非成是的時代,我們看到一群團體要在明天紀念「台北大空襲七十年」活動,就更加顯得彌足珍貴。

台 灣是在二戰結束後,因為「舊金山和約」之故而結束了被日本統治的關係,但在一九四五年時,台灣還是日本的一部分,已被日本統治了五十年。在太平洋戰爭(日 本用語是大東亞戰爭)時,台灣作為日本向東南亞與南太平洋進攻的前線基地,成為太平洋戰爭中的主場之一,即便英美盟軍後來並沒有登陸台灣。

在 珍珠港空襲後隔日,日軍發動了菲律賓戰役,就是透過駐紮在台灣的空軍機隊提供密接支援。盟軍在1944年十月進攻菲律賓前五天,發動對台灣的大規模空襲作 戰,即所謂「台灣沖」的十月台灣空戰。那場空戰讓駐防在台灣的日本空軍精銳折損大半,自此之後台灣上空如同棄守,盟軍戰機如入無人之境。

在 掃平了台灣的空軍戰力後,美國在菲律賓之戰時就能放心處理日本僅存的航母機動部隊。並在攻下菲律賓後,放膽籌畫跳過台灣的沖繩登陸戰,與同期血戰硫磺島。 對日本的神戶、大阪、名古屋、東京等發動大空襲,也是在攻下硫磺島與台灣空軍盡滅後才開始出手。換句話說,台灣所提供的戰略屏障是美軍二戰十分忌憚的對 象,因此在弭平台灣的空海戰鬥力後,才向日本本土挺進。台北大轟炸就是這個戰略背景下出現的。

太平 洋戰爭中後期對都市的大轟炸,台北大轟炸是其中之一,其慘烈程度不下於大阪、名古屋、神戶等大城市的空襲。「五三一台北大空襲」對當時一個數十萬人口的都 市造成三千多人死亡,數萬人受傷與無家可歸的慘狀,傷亡可謂相當慘重,其影響到七十年後還可以見到。就在去年(2014)二月,於台北市信義區還會發現美 軍當時空襲投下的五百磅未爆彈,可見轟炸的密度。但這個老台北人心中如修羅火般的記憶,卻因戰後國民政府的大中國認同與對歷史的抹煞,使得不明究理的戰後 世代會出現五三一台北大空襲是日本轟炸台北的荒謬講法。

不僅是台北,包括高雄、岡山、新竹、台南、 花蓮等地都在1944-1945歷經多次盟軍空襲。二戰時盟軍為了能夠順利進攻日本,把日本南進基地的殖民地台灣當成戰略轟炸的主要目標。盟軍為能順利進 攻菲律賓而空襲台灣,為了打下硫磺島也轟擊台灣,為了攻打沖繩更是對台灣多次轟炸。這是我們父祖輩「躲空襲」記憶的源由。向台灣人民招呼的盟國軍武是比向 日本人來得更多,戰爭的殘酷莫過於此。但這也表示台灣戰略地位的重要。台灣在二戰初期是日本得以進取菲律賓、控制南海,橫掃馬來亞的最重要前哨基地,在二 戰後期更成為保護日本本土的軍事要衝,盟軍不清除掉台灣的戰力,根本無法上攻沖繩,更遑論進取日本。優越的地緣戰略位置,導致台灣會承受這麼多的炸彈。

與 七十年前相比,起碼現在我們可以決定台灣的走向,而不是像七十年前為了一場我們無法決定的戰爭而承受修羅彈雨的擊罰。面對北京為了其強國大夢而意圖挑戰亞 太和平現狀,將美國逐出西太平洋,使得台灣生存面臨岌岌可危的時刻,執政黨竟還與中國遙相唱和,更有藍白政客附和北京兩岸一家親的戲碼以博取中國領導者善 意,這些人同聲一氣釋出願意放棄決定未來的權利等花言巧語,還以維持兩岸和平發展為名,以種種手段弱化台灣決定自身未來的能力。

難 道大家忘記了七十年前,台灣就因為是日本南向侵略的基地而成為美軍轟炸目標,所以七十年後不惜讓台灣成為中國排美抗日的馬前卒,而被美軍再狂轟濫炸一次, 成為中國的抗美砲灰嗎?紀念五三一台北大空襲,不僅是要還原當時台灣的歷史真貌,矯正偽造的歷史謊言,也是要記取歷史教訓,勿讓七十年前的悲劇在今天重 演!


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