201203221234高一第二冊L5之課外補充和課本習題解答

 

1. 俄羅斯方塊Tetris的由來

 

2. the origin of AIDS

 

3.清明節的由來


4. 海爾-博普彗星Comet Hale-Bopp的介紹  縮時攝影(Time Lapse)  歌曲 以及和哈雷等彗星之比較

5. 如何正確量血壓 How To Take Your Blood Pressure Correctly: Tips And Advice




Lesson 5

 

5 珍.古德:從黑猩猩到鬥士

 

關於本課

「人生有夢,希望相隨」,許多人因為從小就懷有夢想,努力終至有一番大成就。本課經由黑猩猩專家珍.古德的故事,鼓勵同學勇於追求自己的夢想。

 

 

 

教學目標

 

1. 藉由他人夢想,建立自己信心。

 

2. 認識黑猩猩專家珍.古德女士。

 

3. 學習   ...N (place), where S + V

 

         ...N (time), when S + V的句型。

 

4. 練習The adj.-er (+ N) + S + V, the adj.-er (+ N) + S + V的句型。

 

           adv.-er                  adv.-er

 

5. 鼓勵參與珍.古德協會的 Roots & Shoots Program(根與芽計劃),抒發自己的抱負。

 

6. 練習用對等連接詞來合併句子。

 

 

 

背景補充資料

 

1. 珍.古德博士生平:

 

珍.古德於 1934 4 3 日出生在英國倫敦,並成長於英格蘭的南方海岸的博恩矛斯。

 

 

 

在珍.古德大約一歲多時,父親送給她一個像真猩猩的娃娃,那是為了紀念在倫敦動物園內出生的小猩猩所發行的玩偶,名字叫做Jubilee。父親的朋友們害怕送一個這樣的禮物給小孩會讓小孩做惡夢,然而珍.古德極愛這個玩偶,並且直到今天 Jubilee 仍然在她英國家中的椅子上。

 

 

 

珍.古德回憶她早期對動物的興趣說:「早在我有記憶以前,我對動物便有相當的興趣。當我四歲的時候,曾逗留在田野中,希望蒐集母雞的蛋,我對於在我周遭的東西都充滿困惑和疑問,『怎麼會有一個夠大的洞讓雞蛋跑出來?』當沒有任何一個人可以給我一個滿意的答案時,我為此藏在一個小而不通風的雞舍好幾個小時,只為了找到答案。家裡為此找不到我而報警,但當我的母親看見我興奮地跑向房內時,她卻坐下傾聽我說完關於母雞如何下蛋的神奇故事,並未因此而責罵我為什麼失蹤了這麼久。」

 

 

 

珍.古德童年最喜歡關於動物方面的書籍,包括 Dr. Dolittle 的故事、叢林的故事、關於泰山的書。在十或十一歲時,她夢想去非洲跟動物們住在一起。在當時對於一個年輕的女孩而言,想去所謂的「黑暗大陸」非洲,真是一個不可思議的抱負。

 

 

 

但是,她從母親那兒得到鼓勵。母親告訴她說:「珍,如果真的想要一樣東西,你只要努力工作,把握機會的優勢,並且絕不放棄,你將會經由某種未知的原因而找到道路。」

 

  • 參考資料:http://www.goodall.org.tw/about_jane/jane_childhood.htm

 

 

 

1960年,二十六歲的珍.古德抵達了東非的坦葛尼喀(Tanganyika)湖邊,著手研究當地的黑猩猩族群。雖然那時候的社會未曾聽說讓一位女性隻身前往非洲森林探險,但這趟旅程卻完成了她年幼時的夢。她在坦尚尼亞的非凡成就超過了一般人的想像,並於1965年取得劍橋大學的動物行為學博士學位,不過她馬上又回到坦尚尼亞去進行研究並致力於籌設岡貝溪研究中心。她對黑猩猩極具深度的研究內容,為未來的靈長類研究打下了基礎。

 

  • 參考資料:http://www.goodall.org.tw/about_jane/index.htm

 

 

 

2. 珍古德協會的設立:

 

珍.古德於1977年設立珍古德協會以進行野生動物的教育和保育研究計劃,並進一步支援野生黑猩猩的研究。至今,珍古德協會的使命是致力於提升黑猩猩個體的能力,讓牠們更具有感受力與同情心,以進一步改善環境。

 

  • 參考資料:http://www.goodall.org.tw/about_jane/index.htm

 

 

 

3. 珍.古德的成就和榮耀:

 

珍.古德博士榮獲眾多的獎項,也有相當多的著作。她除了頗富舉世之名之外,同時也受科學界和各地團體的敬重。她所榮獲的獎項不計其數。1995年獲頒國家地理學會Hubbard Medal,此獎章為她對黑猩猩研究的特殊貢獻和長年為我們所共有的世界所做的努力而頒發。此外,她也在同年成為國家地理學會的駐會探險家,並被英國女王伊莉莎白二世封為皇家爵士(CBE)。1996 年她榮獲Caring Award Sigma Xi’s 1996 William Proctor Prize for Scientific Achievement。更值得一提的是,她是唯一獲得坦尚尼亞政府頒贈獎章的非坦裔人士。其他所榮獲的獎項還有:京都基礎科學獎(Kyoto Prize)、The Ark Trust Lifetime Achievement AwardThe Encyclopedia Britannica AwardAnimal Welfare Institute’s Albert Schweitzer Award

 

  • 參考資料:The Jane Goodall Institute, Taiwan

 

http://www.goodall.org.tw/about_jane/jane_achievement.htm

 

 

 

See a Film! Q & A

搭配多媒體教學光碟之補充影片《珍.古德傳奇》

Q1 Little Jane disappeared one afternoon. Just as her mother thought they must get the police, they saw Jane coming back with shining eyes. Where had she been?

A She had been in a henhouse waiting to see how a hen laid an egg.

Q2 What was the attitude of Jane’s mother toward what Jane wanted to do?

A Whatever Jane wanted to do, her mother would back her up. She never said, “Don’t be so stupid. You can’t possibly do that.” She would always say, “If you want to do something enough, you’ll find a way to do it.”

Q3 What does Jane Goodall think children should learn to respect when they are growing up?

A They should learn to respect other beings’ right to live, and right to enjoy their lives and have certain freedomwhether they are human beings or non-human beings.

 

 

 

補充資料

 

1. lie lay 的三態變化:(配合T-80

原形

lie

lie

lay

過去式

lied

lay

laid

過去分詞

lied

lain

laid

現在分詞

lying

lying

laying

字義

說謊

躺;位於

放置;下蛋

2. instead 的補充:(配合T-80

 

(1) instead adv. 反而;取而代之地  rather

 

S + 否定 V1. Instead, S + V2

 

→Instead of V1-ing, S + V2

 

She didn’t reply. Instead, she turned around and left the room.

 

→ Instead of replying, she turned around and left the room.

 

3. work as 的補充:(配合T-80

 

work as + 身分/職業 擔任……工作(泛指任何工作)

 

比較 serve as + 身分/職業 在組織中或為某組織擔任某職務

 

Both my grandfather and father work as fishermen.

 

Mr. Chen used to serve as our ambassador to the United States when he was young.

 

 

 

課文架構

 

Analysis:

This lesson is a mini biography of Jane Goodall, a famous zoologist who has been studying chimpanzees all her life. The story starts with Goodall’s childhood curiosity, followed by the hard work she did to reach her goal: going to Africa. She got an offer to study chimpanzees in Africa. She gladly accepted and has been doing it for more than forty years.

 

 

 

13

Early Years:

Jane Goodall stayed in a henhouse for four hours just to witness hens laying eggs. She loved Tarzan books and the great outdoors. She had been dreaming about going to Africa since she was nine. She even skipped college so as to fulfill her dream earlier.

 

 

 

45

Youth:

She finally made it to Africa when she was twenty-three. She worked for the famous anthropologist Louis Leakey, who later offered her an opportunity to study chimpanzees for ten years in the rain forest. She said yes. Though many people thought that she wouldn’t last for more than three weeks, she stayed there for over forty yearsand counting.

 

 

 

6

Contributions:

Goodall found that chimpanzees were much like humans in many ways, such as in the way they show emotions and make tools. Her studies made people look at these animals in a brand-new way.

 

 

 

7

Conclusion:

Goodall’s life shows us how curiosity can lead to great achievements.

 

 

 

課前活動

 

教學說明

 

1. 本活動為一些名人小時候的照片與長大的照片,請同學猜一猜與配對各為哪一位名人的小時候。

圖一

珍.古德(1934--

生物學家、動物行為學家和著名動物保育人士

圖二

阿爾伯特.愛因斯坦(1879-1955

著名物理學家,相對論提出者

圖三

黛安娜王妃(1961-1997

英國王妃,正式名稱為Diana, Princess of Wales

圖四

史蒂芬.史匹柏(1946--

著名電影導演

圖五

巴拉克.歐巴馬(1961--

美國現任總統

2. 接著,請同學說出兒時夢想與他人分享,並試著去猜測珍.古德的兒時夢想為何。

 

3. 同學可上網或到圖書館找尋與珍.古德有關的資料,加以整理後,上臺報告或張貼,提供大家參考。

 

 

 

延伸活動

 

請同學填寫類似下列的問卷,為進入課文做暖身。

 

 

 

Class     Name        No.     

I hope to be                                                            

                                                                    

The reason is that                                                      

                                                                    

What I will do to make my dream come true:

                                                                    

                                                                    

                                                                    

 

 

 

e相關網站簡介

珍.古德生平、研究成果和協會工作相關資料網站:

1. http://www.janegoodall.org/default.asp

2. http://www.goodall.org.tw/

3. http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/珍古德

4. http://tinyurl.com/orub25

5. http://tinyurl.com/o8yobv

6. http://tinyurl.com/mhdyrj

7. http://tinyurl.com/5zx37m

 

 

 

補充資料

 

underestimate 的相關補充:(配合T-81

 

       conservatively                 保守

 

(1) be officially    estimated  根據 官方   估計

 

       accurately                     精確

 

       considerably                         過分

 

(2) be totally          overestimated        完全 高估

 

       badly          underestimated         嚴重     低估

 

 

 

課文翻譯與重點解析

 

12 四歲大的珍.古德對於母雞如何下蛋這個問題感到困惑。所以,她開始尋找這奧祕的答案。她藏身在雞舍裡,等著看母雞如何下蛋。終於在四個小時後,她得到答案。她興奮地跑去告訴母親。

  對古德來說,此事開啟了一生的發現之旅。

 

1 (1) four-year-old 表「四歲的」,為複合形容詞,不可在 year 後加 s。這種結構的複合形容詞是名詞作形容詞用,因此不用改成複數。其餘表示年齡的說法有 be + 數字 + years oldbe + 數字 + years of agebe aged + 數字。

 

(2) how hens laid eggs wh- 疑問詞引導的名詞子句,當of 的受詞。

 

有關 lie lay 的三態變化請見 T-78.2 補充資料 1

 

(3) lay/produce eggs 生蛋;hatch eggs 孵蛋;crack/break eggs 把蛋打破

 

2 an answer/a key/a solution to ……的答案/關鍵/解決方法

 

3 (1) hid 三態 hide; hid; hidden

 

(2) ..., waiting to see... 為分詞構句,原句為..., and she waited to see...,省略對等連接詞and及主詞she後,將主動的動詞waited改成現在分詞waiting

 

(3) how a hen laid an egg wh- 疑問詞引導的名詞子句,當 see 的受詞。

 

4 (1) Excited, she ran off to tell her mother. 是分詞構句,原句為 Because she was excited, she ran off...,省略從屬連接詞 because、主詞she be 動詞後,即留下過去分詞 excited

 

(2) ran off 跑走,為動詞片語。

 

5 *有關event的補充請見T-92補充資料。

 

 

 

3  古德於1934年出生於英國。她是閱讀泰山的書籍長大的,大多數時間都儘可能在戶外活動。她在九歲時,就夢想要到非洲。她從未上過大學。反之,她擔任過幾年的服務生,為非洲之旅而存錢。

 

1 be born   on + 特定日期/in + 年份   出生於……

 

in + 大地點/at + 小地點

 

into + 家庭

 

2 (1) She grew up reading Tarzan books.... 此句中的 reading 是現在分詞,為省略連接詞和主詞she後的分詞構句,原句為she grew up and she read Tarzan books...

 

(2) as + adv./adj. (+ N) + as one can/could 儘可能……

 

as...as (it is) possible

 

I’ll travel as much as I can/possible to learn about life.

 

3 attend作動詞有「定時、定期前往及出席某場所」之意,如:attend school, attend church

 

university的補充,請見T-83補充資料 1

 

4 (1) instead 的補充請見 T-78.2 補充資料 2

 

(2) work as 的補充請見 T-78.2 補充資料 3

 

(3) saving... and saved... 簡化而成的分詞構句,表示那幾年 Jane Goodall 一邊做服務生,一邊存錢。

 

 

 

4  然後,她在二十三歲時終於在英國搭船前往肯亞,在那裡她遇見了知名的人類學家――路易斯.李基。她擔任他的祕書一段時間。然後有一天,李基告訴古德,他想派她去非洲雨林研究黑猩猩。她得在那裡待上一陣子。他告訴她這研究計劃可能會長達十年。

 

1 (1) at age twenty-three 二十三歲時 at (the age of) twenty-three

 

(2) 這邊的where為一關係副詞,引導形容詞子句來補充說明先行詞Kenya,由於Kenya是專有名詞,故使用補述用法,在where的前面加上逗點。

 

有關本句型的用法請見本課T-90句型I

 

(3) Louis Leakey the famous anthropologist 的同位語,說明其姓名。

 

2 for a while 一陣子;一段時間

 

Laura thought about my proposal for a while and finally agreed to it.

 

3 (1) one day (過去或未來的)某一天

 

比較 some daysomeday (專指)未來的某一天;the other day 幾天前

 

(2) he wanted to send...to study chimpanzees 為名詞子句,省略開頭的連接詞that,作為told的受詞。

 

(3) send...to 派(遣)某人至某地點或單位

 

She sent her son to bed early, for he had a big test the next morning.

 

(4) rain forest 雨林  rainforest

 

(5) 「猩猩」主要分成三種,分別是:

 

chimpanzee

gorilla

orangutan

中文

黑猩猩

大猩猩

紅毛猩猩

智商

相當於57歲的孩童

相當於石器時代的人類

跟黑猩猩差不多;經過訓練會幫忙做家事;手語溝通、語言能力相當於3歲孩童

備註

珍.古德就是研究這種猩猩

最大型的靈長類動物,電影《金剛》就是這種猩猩

全世界非法進口最多紅毛猩猩的地區就是臺灣

4 (1) take表「花費」的用法:

 

It takes (sb.) + 時間/抽象 N + to VR

 

It takes 時間/抽象N (for + sb.) + to VR

 

Sth. takes + sb. + 時間

 

It took me two hours to find your new house.

 

→It took two hours for me to find your new house.

 

Cleaning up the room took me the whole morning.

 

(2) as long as (時間、物體)長達

 

The bridge is as long as three kilometers.

 

其他類似用法,如:as far as...(遠及……, as much/many (N) as...(多達……)。

 

I managed to get as far as Siberia when I went backpacking last year.

 

I have twice as many books as Jane.

 

 

 

5  古德對這機會感到興奮,不過組織的職員們卻擔心她在非洲雨林的安全。那時候,一般人認為黑猩猩是兇猛的動物。很多人說古德在雨林熬不過三週。他們太小看她了。目前,古德對黑猩猩的研究已經持續了四十多年。

 

1 (1) be/get + excited + about/by

 

What are you so excited about?

 

The whole country was excited by the news of the victory.

 

(2) official 政府或大機構的職員、官員

 

比較 officer 軍官;警官

 

My father is a public official.

 

His brother is an officer in the army.

 

(3) worry/be worried about + N/V-ing 擔心

 

He worried about someone stealing his credit card and using it.

 

2 (1) at that time 當時  then

 

(2) think + O + (to be) + N/adj.  see/view/regard/think of/look on/refer to + O + as + N/adj.

 

此處為被動語態,又是在敘述「當時」的事情,故用were thought to be...

 

What you think to be unimportant may actually mean a lot to someone else.

 

I have always regarded her as my closest friend.

 

3 (1) Goodall wouldn’t last... rain forest為名詞子句,作為said的受詞,開頭省略了連接詞that

 

(2) last v. 度過;熬過  survive, endure

 

I bet he won’t be able to last for more than ten days in the wild.

 

4 underestimate  overestimate

 

由此可知,estimate 即「估計」之意。

 

*有關underestimate的補充請見T-79補充資料。

 

5 此句敘述珍.古德對於黑猩猩的研究到目前為止持續了四十年,故用現在完成式。

 

 

 

6  那四十年盡是美好、驚人的發現。古德愈是觀察黑猩猩,她就愈注意到牠們和人類是多麼地相似。比方說,黑猩猩表達情感的方式和人類很像。牠們親吻、擁抱、握手,甚至彼此搔癢。古德幫我們了解動物是有情緒的。牠們知道快樂和悲傷。令人驚訝的是,古德發現黑猩猩製作和使用工具。在這項發現之前,科學家認為世界上只有人類會製造工具。古德的發現促使我們以全新的方式來看待黑猩猩。我們已經明白了自己和其他生物是多麼地相似。

 

1 be full of 充滿  be filled with

 

2 (1) 有關The adv.-er/adj.-er (+ N) + S + V, the adv.-er/adj.-er (+ N) + S + V的用法請見本課T-91句型II

 

(2) how similar they are to humans為疑問詞how所引導的名詞子句,作為noticed的受詞。

 

(3) be similar to/be the same as/be different from

 

和……相似/和……相同/和……不同

 

3 (1) for example 例如;比方說  for instance

 

The report isn’t complete. For example, it doesn’t tell us when the accident happened.

 

(2) in...way 以……方式

 

Don’t always do things (in) your own way. You should listen to others sometimes.

 

(3) 有關 the same 的用法請見 T-97.1 補充資料 1

 

4 one another 彼此(指三者以上)

 

比較 each other 彼此(指兩者)。但現代英文已愈來愈不明確區分,故 each other one another 已常混用。

 

5 (1) help N (to) + VRhelp後面省略不定詞 to,故可直接加 VR

 

(2) experience/feel/show/express/hide emotion(s) 感受到/表現出/壓抑情緒

 

6 both...and... 注意 連接兩詞性相同的字詞

 

7 amazingly修飾全句,相當於It is amazing that....

 

注意 這種用法副詞後面一定要打逗點,否則這個副詞就不是修飾整句,而是修飾動詞。

 

Gracefully she sat down.gracefully 修飾 sat這個動作,而不是整句)

 

Amazingly, she burst out crying. (這個句子裡的amazingly修飾整句)

 

8 N + maker 製造……的人

 

其他類似用法,如:troublemaker(麻煩製造者), matchmaker(媒人)。

 

9 *有關force的相關補充請見T-97.1補充資料2

 

10 (1) how much...living things 是疑問詞how much 引導的名詞子句,作為realize的受詞。另外,此處的much原置於have之後修飾in common,在此由於配合句子成為名詞子句,故移至how之後。

 

(2) *有關living的補充請見T-93補充資料。

 

 

 

7  那個觀察母雞下蛋的小女生――古德,事實上給世人上了另一堂重要的課。她已經向我們展現一點點好奇心和膽大的冒險精神能夠帶來驚人的發現。

 

1 (1) Goodall, who watched hens lay eggs as a little girl, has.... 此句兩個逗點之中的關係子句是非限定用法,補充說明先行詞 Goodall

 

(2) watch在此為感官動詞,後面加上受詞hens及原形動詞lay,其句型為watch/see/feel/notice/listen to + O + VR/V-ing

 

(3) as a little girl → being a little girl → when she was a little girl

 

(4) teach (+ O) a lesson (替……)上了一課

 

比較 learn a lesson 學到經驗、教訓

 

The story of his diligence taught the whole audience a lesson.

 

Morris didn’t learn a lesson from his past experience and he made the same mistake again.

 

(5) another前面不可以再加冠詞,而且後面接單數名詞。

 

2 (1) show在此為授與動詞,後面加上間接受詞us及直接受詞that S + V,意為「向……展現……」。其餘常見的授與動詞包括:give, bring, buy, hand, make, lend

 

My father bought me the video games that I had wanted for my birthday present.

 

(2) spirit在此為「精神、態度」。

 

We can feel the strong spirit of cooperation between the two sides.

 

 

 

課後理解評量

 

I 理解大意

 

說明

 

本課藉著珍.古德女士從小觀察母雞如何下蛋到長大後獻身於科學研究,進而有了一番成就的故事,鼓勵同學要從小立志並勇於追求夢想,因此正確答案為(C)(A)只是珍.古德發現的一部分。(B)是珍.古德給世人所上的一課。

 

 

 

II 理解細節

 

1. T → She hid in a henhouse, ...she had her answer. (lines 2-4)

 

2. F → Then one day, ...to study chimpanzees. (lines 13-15)

 

3. F → She never attended university. Instead, she worked as...to Africa. (lines 8-10)

 

4. T → The more Goodall...to humans.(lines 23-24)

 

5. F → Amazingly, Goodall...tool makers on earth. (lines 28-30)

 

 

 

III 延伸思考

 

1. 藉由珍.古德獻身於黑猩猩的研究,讓同學深入思考研究野生動物的重要。

 

參考答案:It goes without saying that the study of wild animals is important to us. First of all, it leads to a greater understanding of nature. The study of wild animals gives us the opportunity to see nature for what it really is―various life forms interacting with one another in amazing ways. Our world is full of all kinds of wild animals, and they play an important part in the balance of nature. When one species goes extinct, others are affected. When we study animal life and learn of animals’ habits and behavior, we’ll see that our lives are actually closely related to those of all the other animals. Then, we come to realize why preserving nature and natural habitats is critical to human survival.

 

2. 每個人想必都曾有過夢想,也許現在因為某些原因而難以實現。不管怎樣,有夢想就有希望。

 

參考答案:I have dreamed of becoming a scientist ever since I was little. This is because I’m very interested in science and am always trying to find answers to the mysteries around me. Though I haven’t realized my dream yet, I always cherish it and continually try my best to achieve it. I listen attentively in class and ask my teachers for explanations and words of advice. Meanwhile, I make it a rule to surf the Internet or go to the library to look for new information. Moreover, I have joined the science club and like to share my discoveries with other members. By doing so, I hope I can fulfill my dream some day.

 

 

 

補充資料

 

1. university 的相關補充:(配合T-80

 

attend/enter/go to         + university/college       上大學

 

finish/leave/graduate from                         大學畢業

 

注意以上用法 university 都不必加冠詞。加上去文法也正確,但是意思不同,道理跟 go to school一樣,請揣摩以下類似用法:

1

watch TV 看電視節目

vs.

watch the TV 注視著電視機

2

go to church 做禮拜

go to the church 去教堂(參加婚禮等)

3

go to sea 去當水手

go to the sea 去海邊(游泳等)

4

go to bed 就寢

go to the bed 去床鋪那裡

2. forest 的相關補充:(配合T-85

 

(1) conserve/preserve a forest 保護森林

 

(2) cut down a forest 砍伐森林

 

(3) not see the forest for the trees 見樹不見林(只注意小處而忽略大處)

 

 

 

字彙

 

I 應用字彙

 

1. champion n. [C] 支持者;擁護者;冠軍

 

He became a world chess champion at the age of fifteen.

 

champion vt. 擁護

 

The organization has championed the cause of world peace for many years.

 

championship n. [C] 冠軍稱號/地位;錦標賽;擁護

 

The tennis player won five championships in six years.

 

2. puzzle vt. 使困惑

 

What puzzled me was why he left without telling me.

 

puzzle n. [C] (usually sing.) 令人困惑不解之事物;拼圖

 

Sam finally solved the puzzle by putting all the pieces of information together.

 

puzzled adj. 感到困惑的

 

She was puzzled when she came home and found that everything had been moved out.

 

puzzling adj. 令人困惑的

 

That is really a puzzling question. I don’t know how to answer you.

 

字詞搭配

(1) puzzle out 想出……的答案

It took me some time to puzzle out the meaning of the unfamiliar word.

(2) puzzle one’s way through 奮力將……完成

Louise puzzled her way through the difficult Latin vocabulary.

(3) crossword puzzle 拼字遊戲

(4) jigsaw puzzle 拼圖遊戲

 

3. lay vt. vi. 產卵;放置;鋪設

 

The mother laid her baby gently on the bed.

 

字詞搭配

(1) lay aside 把……放一邊;儲存

You should lay aside some money for a rainy day.

(2) lay down 放下

After the peace talks, both sides agreed to lay down their weapons.

(3) lay off 停止;解僱

A lot of people were laid off because of the economic recession.

(4) lay out 陳列;解說

As we came around a bend on the mountain highway, a beautiful scene was suddenly laid out before our eyes.

Our boss laid out for us his plan for the new project.

 

4. mystery n. [C,U] 神祕奧妙;未知之事

 

The origin of life on earth remains a mystery because there is no agreement on how life started.

 

The hiding place of the treasure is wrapped in mystery.

 

mysterious adj. 神祕的;不可思議的

 

The man next door is so mysterious; I have no idea what he does for a living.

 

字詞搭配

(1) mystery story 推理小說

(2) solve/clear up/unravel/uncover a mystery 解開謎團

Scientists have been trying to solve the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle; that is to figure out why planes and ships have suddenly disappeared in that area without a trace.

 

5. lifetime n. [C] (usually sing.) 一生;一輩子

 

The professor has experienced a lot of political and social changes in his lifetime.

 

字詞搭配

the chance of a lifetime 畢生難逢的機會

I consider my four years at college to be the chance of a lifetime because I will be able to learn a job skill and maybe even meet my Prince Charming.

 

6. outdoors adv. 室外  indoors

 

outdoor adj. 室外的  indoor

 

延伸補充

形容詞字尾加 s 可變成副詞的字有overseas(在海外)、upstairs/downstairs(在樓上/在樓下)、sideways(斜向一邊)

 

7. attend vt. 上學;就學;出席;伴隨

 

I must go now; I have a meeting to attend.

 

attendance n. [C,U] 出席;出席次數

 

Jane had perfect attendance last semester; she was never absent for any reason.

 

延伸補充

(1) attendance book 簽到簿

(2) check/take attendance 點名 take the roll

(3) attend to 處理;照料 deal with, cope with, handle

I must go now; I have other business to attend to.

 

attention n. [U] 注意;專心

 

May I have your attention, please?

 

attend的補充,請見T-94補充資料12

 

8. university n. [U,C] 大學

 

You have to meet all the entrance requirements to get into that famous university.

 

When you graduate from university, you get a bachelor’s degree.

 

字詞搭配

(1) national/private/state university 國立/私立/州立大學

(2) open university 空中大學

 

 

 

延伸補充

比較collegeuniversity的差異:

(1) In the UK, a college is similar to a vocational school(職業學校), where students learn a job skill. Colleges don’t give degrees.

(2) In the US, a college gives the bachelor’s degree. Also, a college is made up of several departments. A university consists of several colleges. Moreover, besides the bachelor’s degree, a university gives higher degrees, namely master’s and doctoral degrees.

 

9. board vt. vi. 登上(巴士、火車、船、飛機);寄宿  embark  disembark

 

Flight 103 for Tokyo is now boarding. Passengers taking this flight please proceed to gate 47.

 

Sam boarded with me until he found an apartment.

 

延伸補充

字辨 aboardabroad

(1) aboard adv. 在車、飛機、船上 on board 如:get aboard

(2) abroad adv. 到(在)國外 如:live/study abroad

 

board n. [C] 黑板

 

The teacher wrote a sentence on the board.

 

board的相關補充,請見T-89補充資料。

 

10. forest n. [U,C] 森林

 

forest的相關補充,請見T-83補充資料2

 

11. project n. [C] 計劃;作業

 

They gave up the new construction project for lack of capital.

 

project vt. 投影 注意 重音於-ject

 

They projected pictures of their family vacation on the TV screen.

 

12. opportunity n. [C,U] 機會

 

Attending a university is a golden opportunity(千載難逢的好機會)for young people who want to receive a good education.

 

Opportunity seldom knocks twice. (【諺】機會難得;福無雙至。)

 

字詞搭配

(1) await an opportunity 等待機會

(2) catch/seize/take an opportunity 抓住機會

(3) miss/lose/waste an opportunity 錯過機會

(4) let an opportunity slip 讓機會溜走

 

13. violent adj. 暴力的;粗暴的;激烈的

 

There was a violent storm last week.

 

violence n. [U] 猛烈;暴力

 

Many parents do not want their children to see violence on TV.

 

violate vt. 施暴;違反;侵犯

 

Our privacy should not be violated.

 

violation n. [C,U] 違反;侵犯

 

He was fined NT$2,000 for violation of a traffic regulation.

 

字詞搭配

(1) do violence to 傷害;違反(規則);歪曲

This newspaper’s reports are not always reliable; they often do violence to the truth.

(2) domestic violence 家庭暴力

Jackson has a hot temper, and his children are often the victims of domestic violence.

 

14. human n. [C] 人類

 

In science fiction, people on earth are referred to as humans, while beings from other planets are called aliens.

 

human adj. 人類的;(合乎)人性的

 

I believe that human nature(人性)is good, not bad.

 

To err is human; to forgive (is) divine.(犯錯乃人之常情,寬恕乃神之聖行。)

 

注意 表示「人」的單複數變化有規則型和不規則型兩種,請見以下表格:

human

humans

羅馬人

Roman

Romans

德國人

German

Germans

法國人

Frenchman

Frenchmen

新鮮人

freshman

freshmen

中國人

Chinese

Chinese

日本人

Japanese

Japanese

human的相關補充請見T-96補充資料。

 

15. realize vt. 了解;實現

 

To realize his dream of traveling around the world, Joe works day and night.

 

realization n. [U] 實現;醒悟

 

The realization of our dream will take a lot of work and resources.

 

The realization that he was in danger came too late; before he could react, the zookeeper was bitten by a poisonous snake.

 

16. emotion n. [C,U] 情緒;激動

 

Fear is one of the most powerful emotions that people can experience.

 

emotional adj. 情緒的

 

The strong boy has emotional problems; he gets upset easily.

 

emotionless adj. 無情的;冷漠的

 

I tried to start a conversation with that man, but he just stood there with an emotionless expression on his face.

 

字詞搭配

(1) emotional quotient (EQ) 情緒商數

A person with a high EQ can forgive and forget; they don’t get angry easily.

(2) arouse/excite/stir (up) emotions 激起情感

control/suppress emotions 壓抑情感

(3) emoticon emotion(情緒)和 icon(圖像、圖示)組合而成,意指「情緒臉譜、表情符號」(由標點符號組成用以表達情感的符號,通常出現在電子郵件或網路聊天中,用以營造輕鬆友好的氣氛)。

 

17. sadness n. [U] 悲傷;傷心

 

She felt a great sense of sadness when her best friend left for Canada.

 

sadden vt. 使悲傷

 

It saddens me to think that we may not see each other again.

 

*有關sadness的補充請見T-97.1補充資料3

 

18. amazingly adv. 驚人地;令人訝異地

 

Last summer, Tom took some amazingly clear photos of birds in flight.

 

amaze vt. 使訝異

 

He amazed everyone by winning first place in the speech contest.

 

amazed adj. 感到訝異的

 

We were amazed that the old man finished the marathon race.

 

amazement n. [U] 訝異

 

Everyone looked at the magician in amazement when he made an elephant disappear.

 

amazing adj. 令人訝異的

 

It’s quite amazing to find so many good restaurants in this small town.

 

字詞搭配

to one’s amazement 令(某人)驚訝的是……

To our amazement, he remembered clearly what had happened ten years ago.

 

amaze的相關補充請見T-94補充資料3

 

19. force vt. 迫使;逼迫

 

force n. [U] 力量;武力

 

It is not right to resort to force to solve a problem.

 

forceful adj. 強而有力的;堅強的

 

The president’s speech was short but forceful; we were impressed by his strong determination to crack down on crime.

 

forcefully adv. 強而有力地

 

Tim argued his case forcefully at the meeting.

 

字詞搭配

(1) bring/put...into force 施行(法律等)

They have decided to put the new law into force next year.

(2) in force (法律)有效;施行中

The old traffic law is still in force.

(3) join forces 協力;聯合

It is necessary for the police to join forces with the public to fight against crime.

(4) air force 空軍

(5) the armed forces 三軍

 

20. completely adv. 完全地  incompletely

 

complete vt. 使完整;完成  incomplete

 

All the preparations have been completed, so we are ready to go.

 

complete adj. 完全的

 

The house was in complete chaos(混亂)after the robbers broke in.

 

21. curiosity n. [U] 好奇心

 

To satisfy my curiosity about the stars and planets, I bought a telescope.

 

curious adj. 好奇的;奇怪的

 

After just a few pages, I became curious about how the novel would end.

 

字詞搭配

(1) curiosity shop 古玩店

(2) curious to say 說來奇怪  curiously enough

I called my best friend Jane several times, but, curious to say, she did not answer or return my call.

(3) out of curiosity 出於好奇

Bruce was told not to open the box until Christmas, but out of curiosity, he opened it to see what his parents had gotten him.

 

22. bold adj. 大膽的;厚顏的;無畏的

 

It was bold of John to ask his boss for a raise.

 

字辨 bald adj. 禿頭的

 

People who are bald may wear toupees or wigs.

 

boldness n. [U] 大膽的行徑或作風;無恥

 

How can you have the boldness to ask me to do your homework for you?

 

字詞搭配

(1) (as) bold as brass 厚顏無恥

The beggar sat there as bold as brass and refused to leave.

(2) boldface 粗體(平常 Word 看到的 B「粗體按鈕」就是代表 boldface

 

23. adventurous adj. 好冒險的;冒險性的

 

adventure n. [C,U] 冒險;探險

 

adventurer n. [C] 冒險家

 

He dreams of becoming an adventurer and exploring new places.

 

adventure的相關補充請見T-94補充資料4

 

 

 

II 認識字彙

 

1. Jane Goodall n. 珍.古德

 

Jane Goodall is an expert on chimpanzees.

 

2. chimpanzee/chimp n. [C] 黑猩猩

 

A chimpanzee is a large, dark-haired African ape.

 

3. Tarzan n. 泰山

 

為美國作家Edgar Rice Burroughs1875-1950)泰山系列小說的主角,成長於原始森林中。有關泰山系列小說的介紹,請參考網站:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Rice_Burroughs

 

4. Kenya n. 肯亞

 

東非的共和國,1903年脫離英國而獨立,首都為奈洛比(Nairobi)。

 

5. anthropologist n. [C] 人類學家

 

The anthropologist went to the village to study the customs there.

 

延伸補充

anthropology 字根 anthrop 即「人」;-logy源自 logic 「邏輯」,亦即 -logy 是「一套邏輯思考理論」而演變成「學問」的意思;所以 anthropology 是研究人的學問。而anthrop 字根套上代表「愛」的字首 phil-就變成 philanthropist「慈善家」。

 

6. Louis Leakey n. 路易斯.李基

 

為考古學家和人類學家,他和妻子瑪麗.李基在坦尚尼亞發現一百七十五萬年前的東非人頭蓋骨,其敘述和分析影響了人類演化理論。

 

7. awhile adv. 一會兒

 

Please wait awhile. He’ll be back soon.

 

8. underestimate vt. vi. 低估

 

Don’t underestimate Paul. He’s very smart.

 

延伸補充

(1) estimate vt. 估計

It is estimated that the number of people killed by the tsunami was around 500,000.

estimate n. 估計

My estimate is that the house is worth twenty million dollars.

(2) overestimate v. ……評價過高;高估

They overestimated the value of the house and paid too much for it.

 

9. affection n. [U,C] 情感

 

Jason keeps trying to win the affections of the new girl in his class, but she never seems to notice him.

 

affectionate adj. 深情款款的;溫柔親切的

 

He is very affectionate towards his children.

 

affection的相關補充請見T-95補充資料1

 

 

 

片語

 

1. set out to 開始;著手進行

 

Having worked out the outline, I set out to write the essay.

 

延伸補充

(1) set about+Ving 著手;開始

A team of volunteers set about the task with great determination.

(2) set aside 留下;儲存

They set aside some money every month to buy a new house.

(3) set up 設立;建立

He planned to set up a business after working for five years.

(4) set off+for地方 出發;動身

This is the plan for the outing: we will get up at six, have breakfast at seven, and set off for our destination at eight.

 

2. dream of 夢想要……

 

I dream of becoming a pilot some day.

 

延伸補充

dream away 虛度(光陰等)

Don’t dream your life away.

 

3. make one’s way to... 前往……

 

After the concert, we made our way to our car in the parking lot.

 

way的相關補充請見T-95補充資料2

 

4. have...in common (with...) ……有共同之處

 

Tammy and Ruth have several hobbies in common, for example, coin collecting.

 

延伸補充

have much/something/little/nothing in common (with...)
(和)……有許多/一些/幾乎沒有/完全沒有共同之處

 

5. lead to 促成;導致 
bring about, result in, give rise to, cause(因在前,果在後)

 

Eating too much can lead to weight gain.

 

延伸補充

(1) lead to的反義詞為result/arise/stem from, be caused by,表「起因於;由於」(果在前,因在後。)

The problem resulted from poor planning.

The landslide stemmed from the heavy rain.

(2) lead to 通往

All roads lead to Rome.

 

 

 

字詞研究

 

教學說明

 

1. (1) 字尾 -ous 加在名詞後成為形容詞,表「多……的」、「……性的」、「有……特點的」、「像……的」、「不停地做……的」等意思,例如:mountainousgloriouswondrouspoisonousjoyousvigorousgenerous等。

 

(2) 字尾 -ious 原出自拉丁文的形容詞字尾 -ous,其i是語幹的最後一個母音,有時只是單純為了便於發音而增添的,例如:consciouspreciousnutritiousfurious等。

 

(3) 字尾 -eous則為 -iful的別體,例如:beauteous beautiful)等。

 

2. 補充一些較常見的字尾:

-able(形容詞)

可以……

washable

unbearable

-ation(名詞)

動作造成的狀態或結果

examination

combination

-ize(動詞)

使某物更大程度地具有某種特點

modernize

hospitalize

-er(名詞)

做某事的人

dancer

photographer

-ship(名詞)

身分、地位、資格、技能、狀況

friendship

scholarship

-ity(名詞)

具有某種特性的狀態或事物

regularity

responsibility

-ing(分詞)

動作、過程

swimming

parking

-istic(形容詞)

具有……特質的人/事/物

futuristic

realistic

 

 

補充例句

 

1. Don’t go near that dog. It looks dangerous.

 

2. Dr. Bordie always gives humorous lectures, so we don’t want to miss any of his classes.

 

3. The little girl was not courageous enough to go into the dark woods.

 

4. Tom is adventurous. He often travels to distant deserts and tropical rain forests.

 

5. Grace is a famous movie actress who has many fans.

 

6. Ben got so nervous before his speech that he forgot most of it.

 

7. The puppy seems to be curious about everything it sees.

 

8. There are various kinds of desserts for us to choose from in the restaurant.

 

 

 

補充資料

 

board的相關補充:(配合T-85

 

(1) above board (交易等)光明正大的/地

 

It’s better for you to be very above board about this matter.

 

(2) on board 搭乘(車、船等)

 

Have all the passengers gone/gotten on board yet?

 

(3) room and board 膳宿(費)

 

Room and board is $200 a week.

 

(4) boarder 寄宿生

 

(5) boarding school 提供飲食、住宿的學校

 

(6) boarding pass 登機證

 

(7) boarding gate 登機門

 

 

 

句型練習

 

.   ...N (place), where S + V

 

     ...N (time), when S + V

 

教學說明

 

1 關係副詞包括 when(時間), where(場所)和why(原因)。本單元介紹其中的wherewhen引導形容詞子句的非限定用法(即先行詞不必另加說明就很明確,如專有名詞等),用以補充說明先行詞。此時的關係副詞前要加逗點。

 

They arrived in Tainan, where they stayed for a week.

 

Last Friday, I went to my uncle’s home, where I first met my girlfriend.

 

I went to Paris last July, when it was raining every day.

 

He died in 1970, when his third daughter was born.

 

2 說明關係副詞的非限定用法後,接著補充說明限定用法(即先行詞含糊並不明確,則需要用一個子句去界定它的性質),此時的關係副詞一樣引導形容詞子句修飾先行詞,但前面不加逗點。

 

This is the place where I grew up.

 

The city where we spent our winter vacation is rather beautiful.

 

Monday is the day when I am busiest.

 

Please tell me the exact time when you will get here.

 

3 複習關係代名詞的非限定用法和限定用法。

 

He has two brothers, both of whom are doctors.

 

It’s a family with five children, all of whom are studying medicine.

 

Peter made a silly mistake, which made me very angry.

 

I have around one thousand stamps, some of which are very rare.

 

Mr. Wang has a son who lives in Taichung.

 

Where is the boy whom you are talking about?

 

He lost the novel which he bought yesterday.

 

 

 

補充練習

 

A. 請根據文意,填入(,) when(,) where why

 

1. A strong earthquake struck last night      most of the people were sound asleep.

 

2. Many visitors come to Tainan      good food can be found everywhere.

 

3. I often dream of a world      everyone lives in peace.

 

4. He will always remember the day      his father returned from America.

 

5. Mary asked me the reason      I was feeling down.

 

6. Cindy was born in 2004      the severest tsunami on record hit South Asia.

 

7. We went to Disneyland      we saw Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck.

 

8. You are most welcome to visit the place      I live.

 

 

 

B. 引導式翻譯

 

1. 我不知道他們的婚禮在哪一間旅館舉行。

 

I don’t know the hotel      their      will          .

 

2. 我忘不了第一次遇見你的地方。

 

I will never      the place      I met you      the first     .

 

3. 請等到明天,屆時我會詳細地告訴你那件事。

 

Please wait      tomorrow,      I will tell you about that          .

 

4. 我們喜歡這城市,我們在這裡度過大部分的童年時光。

 

We like this city, a place      we           of our     .

 

5. 老師想要知道傑克為什麼輟學。

 

The teacher wanted to know the reason      Jack          
     school.

 

 

 

參考答案:

 

A. 1. , when 2. , where 3. where 4. when

 

5. why 6. , when 7. , where 8. where

 

B. 1. where, wedding, take/be, place/held

 

2. forget, where, for, time

 

3. till/until, when, in, detail

 

4. where, spent, most, childhood

 

5. why, dropped, out, of

 

 

 

 

 

 

. The  adj.-er (+N) + S + V, the adj.-er (+N) + S + V

 

         adv.-er                adv.-er

 

教學說明

 

1 本單元在讓同學明白比較級的特殊結構,表示「愈……,愈……」,說明一種因果關係。而其基本形式為 “The + 形容詞比較級(+ 名詞)副詞比較級 + S + V, the + 形容詞比較級(+ 名詞)副詞比較級 + S +V”。提醒同學第一個the引導的子句是副詞子句,而第二個the後的才是主要子句。

 

The higher one climbs, the harder one may fall.

 

The more carefully you drive, the fewer accidents you’ll be involved in.

 

The older we grow, the more we’ll realize the importance of honesty.

 

Do you think that the more money you make, the happier you’ll be?

 

2 和此句型相關的概念:

 

副詞子句中,主詞是普通名詞而其後動詞為be 動詞時,be 動詞常予以省略。

 

The shorter your speech (is), the better it will be.

 

The colder the wind (is), the brighter the stars shine.

 

3 有時會有省略的說法,例如:

 

The sooner, the better.(愈快愈好。)

 

The more, the merrier.(人多才熱鬧。)

 

→ The more people there are, the merrier it is/will be.

 

More haste, less speed.(欲速則不達。)

 

4 其他相關句型

 

(1) the + 形容詞比較級 + of the two ……之中較……

 

Of the two animals, the horse is the more powerful.

 

(2) much/still/far/even/a lot + 形容詞比較級 更加……

 

I’m surprised to find that Linda knows it much better than I do.

 

 

 

補充練習

 

A. 根據文意把括弧內的提示字改為適當形式

 

1.      (much) we walk,      (healthy) we become.

 

2.      (long) we waited,      (impatient) we became.

 

3.      (early) you start,      (soon) you will get there.

 

4.      (generous) you are,      (many) friends you’ll have.

 

5.      (careful) you are,      (few) mistakes you’ll make.

 

 

 

B. 完成句子

 

1. The longer Peter drove,        . (he became sleepy)

 

2. The more I get to know him,        . (I like him little)

 

3. The more realistic your goal is,        . (you will easily reach it)

 

4. The more often you use your brains,        . (you will be sharp)

 

5. The better prepared you are,        . (you are likely to succeed)

 

 

 

C. 引導式翻譯

 

1. 我們愈常在一起,會愈快樂。

 

The      we      together,           we’ll be.

 

2. 我們愈快開始工作,將愈早完成。

 

The      we begin our work,           we’ll      it.

 

3. 我們年紀愈大,就愈健忘。

 

The      we grow,                we become.

 

4. 竹子長得愈高,彎得愈低。

 

The       a       tree grows, the      it     .

 

5. 音樂聲音愈大,聽眾變得愈興奮。

 

The      the music was, the           the      became.

 

 

 

參考答案:

 

A. 1. The more, the healthier

 

2. The longer, the more impatient

 

3. The earlier, the sooner

 

4. The more generous, the more

 

5. The more careful, the fewer

 

B. 1. the sleepier he became

 

2. the less I like him

 

3. the more easily you will reach it

 

4. the sharper you will be

 

5. the more likely you are to succeed

 

C. 1. more, get, the, happier

 

2. sooner, the, earlier, finish

 

3. older, the, more, forgetful

 

4. taller, bamboo, lower, bends

 

5. louder, more, excited, audience

 

 

 

補充資料

 

比較 event, incident, accident, affair, matter, thing的差異:(配合T-80

 

(1) event:指「事件」、「大事」,例如:「一週大事」即 the most important event of the week

 

(2) incident:指「突發事件」,通常是不愉快的事。字義涵蓋在 event 範圍下,和 accident 用法有部分重疊。

 

(3) accident:指「意外不幸的事」。

 

(4) affair:指「跟某人、某物、某地有關的事件」或「該做的事務」; 指「公共事務」時,常作複數。

 

(5) matter:指「一件考慮中或需要處理的事」,例如:a matter of no account 「無關緊要的事」。

 

(6) thing:詞意籠統,多半指不太具體的事。

 

 

 

課後延伸

 

 本活動是請同學參考珍古德協會所推行的「根與芽計劃」中的兩項活動(一是在國際和平日展示巨大的和平鴿布偶,一是在坦尚尼亞和美國種植樹苗)後,思考是否能為周遭的環境盡份心力。

 

 

 

 

 

背景補充資料

 

1. 根與芽計劃(Roots & Shoots Program)簡介:

 

根與芽是珍古德協會所創立的教育計劃,對象包括從幼稚園到大學的學子。

 

2. 根與芽計劃的歷史:

 

珍古德協會(The Jane Goodall Institute)相信世界的未來掌握在年輕一代的手中。本著這樣的理念,珍古德協會1991年在東非坦尚尼亞(Tanzania)的三蘭港(Dar es Salaam)創立。根與芽計劃發展迅速,截至2006年,成立根與芽小組的國家已經超過90幾個,全世界共有超過9,000個小組成立,而臺灣就已有480個小組。

 

3. 根與芽計劃的使命:

 

(1) 加強對一切生物的尊重與關懷。

 

(2) 促進不同文化和信仰的理解。

 

(3) 鼓勵人們採取行動,讓動物、環境和彼此的世界更加美好。

 

4. 根與芽計劃的目標:

 

(1) 主動了解環境、主動關懷環境,並且與環境產生良好的互動,以達到改善環境的目的。

 

(2) 主動關懷所有的動物。

 

(3) 透過珍古德協會的國際聯絡網路,加強對不同文化、經濟、種族、信仰、國家的了解。

 

(4) 協助年輕人發展自信心和自尊,建立他們對未來的希望。

 

  • 資料來源:http://www.goodall.org.tw/about_rs/index.htm

 

 

 

e相關網站簡介

1. Roots & Shoots Program的相關影片:

http://tinyurl.com/4ywqtqt

2. 其他珍.古德相關影片還有:

2009 Day of Peace Message from Jane Goodall

http://tinyurl.com/3qr5qsw

Jane Goodall: Showing Us the Way to a Better World

http://tinyurl.com/44fmvof

 

 

 

補充資料

 

live 衍生出以下四個常見的形容詞: (配合T-82

live

實況轉播的;現場表演的;活的。例如:a live television show

living

活生生的;生活的。這字是 dead 的反義字,因此課文「生物」寫成 living things。其他例子:living death「活受罪;生不如死」、living hell「活地獄」、living conditions「生活條件」。

lively

生動的;活潑的。例如:a lively tunea lively description of a football game

alive

有活力的;活著的。alive指本來有死的可能,但仍活著。注意 凡是加上 a-字首而轉變成的形容詞,例如astrayawakeasleep,都不可以放名詞前面修飾該名詞,只能放名詞後面。

 

 

課本p.94參考答案:

 

Name of the project

 

Caring for Disadvantaged Children

 

Goal to reach

 

To support the education of children in remote mountainous areas.

 

Reasons to do it

 

1. Geographical and financial factors have reduced these children’s ability to survive in society.

 

2. Helping these children may help to change the world.

 

What to do

 

1. Collect used books and other school supplies and send them to these children.

 

2. Provide them with a tutorial system.

 

3. Offer financial aid and counseling for their families.

 

 

 

補充資料

 

1. attend, take part in, join 三者的差異:(配合T-85

 

(1) 「參加」會議、活動,要用attend,例如:attend a meetingattend a wedding,這種「參加」常指露個面,並不是長期成為某個組織活動的一分子。

 

(2) 「參加」組織、比賽、活動,要用 take part in,例如:take part in the Olympic Gamestake part in a play

 

(3) attend 相反,join是成為某個組織活動中的一個角色,所以「參加」黨派、組織,要用 join,例如:join a clubjoin the army

 

2. attendance attention 的延伸補充:(配合T-85

 

(1) perfect attendance award 全勤獎

 

(2) attendance bonus 員工從不請假,每個月可以領到的全勤獎金

 

(3) come to one’s attention 引起某人的注意

 

It has come to my attention that he always disappears for a while in the afternoon.

 

(4) pay attention to 注意

 

You had better pay attention to your teacher in class.

 

(5) center of attention 注目焦點

 

She enjoys being the center of attention wherever she goes.

 

3. amaze, shock, surprise, stun的比較:(配合T-87

 

(1) amaze 字首 a- 意即 to,後面 maze 即「迷宮」。可想而知,amaze彷彿是面對一座複雜難解的迷宮時,內心那種驚訝和迷惑的感覺。

 

(2) shock 有「休克;電擊」的意思,所以可以感覺得出shock是指壞消息或負面事件所帶來的「震驚」。

 

(3) surprise 主要是指因意料之外的事情所引發的驚奇,好壞事都有可能。

 

(4) stun staystopstare 同源,這些字都有「靜止不動」的意思,因此 stun 是指極度驚嚇,被嚇得目瞪口呆、不知所措。從stun繼續衍生出來的 astonish(字首 a- to,字尾-ish 無義,字根 ston stun)和 astound(字首 a- to,後接字根stun的變體)也都有「使某人驚訝」的意思。

 

4. adventure, venture, risk的比較:(配合T-87

 

(1) adventure venture 這兩個字系出同源,-ture 為名詞字尾,字根 vent come,字首ad- to,因此 advent有「來臨」的意思,等於 coming,所以 adventure 有「到此一遊」的意味,指人生有刺激性的奇遇經歷或驚險事件。

 

(2) 去掉字首再衍生的 venture 則是指冒著生命財產的危險,常常用在商業投資上。

 

(3) 此外 risk 是指面對可能發生負面結果的風險,例如:at the risk of losing his life

 

 

 

聽力練習

 

教學說明

 

本聽力練習先聽取三篇與珍.古德有關的故事,然後請勾選和故事敘述吻合的圖片。

 

 

 

聽力腳本(錄音在附錄)

 

A. It was never an easy thing for me to study chimpanzees in Africa alone. At first, the animals ran away 1in fear once I walked near; it took me months to get close to them. But, I didn’t give up. Instead, I walked through the forest every day and watched these animals from 2afar without disturbing them. On many days, I would watch the chimpanzees through 3binoculars from the top of a hill. 4Little by little, the chimpanzees got used to my presence and even became my friends.

 

B. I went into the Tanzanian forest to study chimpanzees when I was twenty-six. In the early morning, I would wake up and start to 5do my research in the forest. Late at night, I would stay in the tent recording and thinking about what I had learned during the day. If you want to do this kind of work yourself, just think about it: What items would you need to have with you? What would your camp look like?

 

C. I loved animals even as a child. When I was just over one year old, my father gave me a toy chimpanzee, which I named Jubilee. At first, the whole family was afraid that I would be scared of the black and furry animal doll, 6only to find that Jubilee became one of my favorite toys. I 7carried Jubilee with me everywhere. Today, more than sixty-five years later, Jubilee—now completely bald from so many hugs—sits on my 8dresser in England!

 

 

 

腳本解析

 

1. in fear 擔心地;害怕地

 

2. afar 遙遠地

 

3. binoculars 雙筒望遠鏡

 

4. little by little  gradually 漸漸地

 

5. do/conduct/pursue one’s research (某人)作研究

 

6. only to VR ( but S + V)

 

She tried to open the door, only to find that it was locked.

 

7. carry/bring/take sth. with sb. (某人)隨身帶著(某物)

 

8. dresser  dressing table 梳妝臺

 

 

 

補充資料

 

1. affect 的字義探究:(配合T-88

 

affect 字首 af- to,字根 fect doact。因此 affect 等於片語 act on 「對……起作用」,例如:

 

These medical herbs are said to act on the heart. (據說這些藥草會對心臟起作用。)

 

2. way 相關的片語:(配合T-88

 

(1) all the way 一路上;完全地

 

She didn’t say anything all the way back home.

 

(2) by way of 經由

 

I’ll go to France by way of Thailand.

 

(3) get/have one’s (own) way 為所欲為

 

You can’t always get your way. I simply won’t put up with it.

 

(4) give way to 崩潰;讓步

 

He refused to give way to that man’s demands.

 

(5) elbow/inch/fight/push one’s way to.../out of...

 

一路推擠緩慢移動推擠……/出……

 

(6) work one’s way through college 半工半讀念完大學

 

(7) bribe one’s way to power 靠行賄取得權力

 

 

 

寫作園地

 

教學說明

 

本單元在讓同學複習對等連接詞(例如:and, so, but, for, or)的概念,進而用來合併句子,使其有所變化。而對等連接詞依其意義,可分為下列四種:

 

1. 累積連接詞,用來將所連接的各部分累加起來,例如:and, both...and..., not only...but also..., as well as, neither...nor... 等。

 

I came to see him and tell him the truth.

 

Both Peter and Linda work here.

 

Not only you but also he has to be responsible for it.

 

2. 反義連接詞,用來表示前後所說的意義恰好相反或相互對比,例如:but, yet, while 等。

 

My grandma is over seventy, but she is still active.

 

He is rich, while his brother is very poor.

 

3. 選擇連接詞,用來將兩個部分連在一起,再從中選擇一個,如:or, not...but..., either...or...等。

 

I love the girl not because she is beautiful but because she is kind.

 

You can stay or leave. It’s up to you.

 

Either he or I am wrong.

 

4. 推理連接詞,連接兩個子句,用來表示原因或結果。例如:for, so等。

 

You must be happy, for you are laughing.

 

John went to bed early, so he could get up early the next morning.

 

 

 

補充練習

 

請同學填入 and, so, but, for or

 

1. My friends study every night,     I don’t need to.

 

2. Which is more important to you, love     bread?

 

3. Bill has much homework to do today,     he has to go home now.

 

4. Turn to the right,     you will find the movie theater.

 

5. I’d like to go to your party,     I have to go to Tainan on business.

 

6. Do what you are told,     you will be punished.

 

7. The reporter walked toward the actress     asked her several questions.

 

8. He felt no fear,     he had prepared well.

 

9. The bookstore was closed,     I didn’t buy the book I needed.

 

10. They must start early,     it will take three hours to drive to their destination.

 

 

 

參考答案:

 

1. but 2. or  3. so  4. and  5. but

 

6. or  7. and 8. for 9. so  10. for

 

 

 

補充資料

 

比較 man, mankind, people, human, human being, humanity 的差異:
(配合T-86

 

(1) man:作「人類」解時,不能加冠詞;加冠詞字義是「男人」。

 

(2) mankind:集合名詞,指「全人類」,因此字尾不可以加s,前面也不可以加冠詞,但是可以用形容詞修飾。

 

(3) people:指「人群」而非「人類」,字尾也不可以加 s

 

(4) human:可數名詞。因此指一個人時,記得加 a;泛指所有人類時,記得要加 s

 

(5) human being:用法和 human 差不多;但是在一些習慣說法, 兩者不能互換, 如:「人傳人」的疾病只能說human-to-human transmission,不可以說human being-to-human-being transmission

 

(6) humanity:集合名詞,多用在文學作品。前面也不可以加冠詞。

 

 

 

背景補充資料

 

黑猩猩的英文名為 chimpanzee 學名為 Pan troglodytes,是黑猩猩屬的兩種動物之一,但由於黑猩猩和人類的基因相似度達98.77%(最近有些研究顯示為99.4%),所以亦有學者主張將黑猩猩屬的動物併入人屬。黑猩猩原產地在非洲西部及中部,英文名chimpanzee在非洲土語中意指「小精靈」,屬於哺乳綱靈長目,平日成群地生活,每個群體就像一個部落。

 

 

 

黑猩猩體多毛,四肢修長且皆可握物,牠們能以半直立的方式行走。黑猩猩經常會和大猩猩搞混,但牠們倆是不同的,黑猩猩的體型比大猩猩小。黑猩猩的血型以A為主,有少量O型,但沒有B型。M血型和N血型也有發現。據說有一次深圳動物園的黑猩猩受傷了需要輸血,但是又找不到A型的猩猩血,於是醫生輸了一些人的A型血液給黑猩猩,救了牠一命。黑猩猩有48條染色體(24對)。黑猩猩細胞色素C上的胺基酸順序與人類的相同。母猩猩懷孕期達230天,一胎生下一子。黑猩猩的智商相當於人類5~7歲。

 

 

 

黑猩猩的智商較高,已知牠們能使用一些簡單的工具來進行一些工作,如捉白蟻。生物學家多次觀察到雌黑猩猩可以製作工具來捕獵叢猴。黑猩猩群落間可爆發戰爭。死去的敵方黑猩猩可能被吃掉。

 

 

 

黑猩猩的食性十分普遍,牠們會利用不同的方法來獲取不同的食物,例如黑猩猩會利用舔滿口水的細枝來黏螞蟻,並利用兩塊石器放置、敲開果實。黑猩猩有時會捕食一些猴類(如紅尤猴、黑白尤猴),而黑猩猩在捕食猴類時會策劃戰術。由於黑猩猩無法在樹上捕捉靈敏的尤猴,因此有一隻黑猩猩會先從陸地上超過樹上的尤猴群,而其他黑猩猩則會從樹上將牠們聚集並驅趕到埋伏地點,當陸上的黑猩猩到達埋伏地點時會在樹下等候,此時其他的黑猩猩會堵住尤猴群的路,只留下一條有埋伏的通道,當尤猴進入這條路時,埋伏的黑猩猩會把牠趕到地上獵殺。

 

 

 

最近有些研究顯示黑猩猩具有使用語言的能力,然而這點仍存有很大的爭議,目前科學界普遍的看法是牠們並沒有語言能力。

 

  • 參考資料: http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E9%BB%91%E7%8C%A9%E7%8C%A9

 

 

 

補充資料

 

1. the same 的用法:(配合T-82

 

the same...as/that... 和……一樣的;正是……

 

This machine works in exactly the same way as the other one does.(相同的另一個方法)

 

He is still the same funny person that I met ten years ago.(是同一個人)

 

2. force 的相關補充:(配合T-82

 

force + O + to VR/into N/into V-ing 迫使 urge + O + to VR

 

As there was no bus, I was forced to take a taxi.

 

Ill health forced him into early retirement/retiring early.

 

3. 比較sadness, sorrow, grief, misery的差異:(配合T-86

 

(1) sadness:指為他人覺得難過的悲傷、或發生了不想發生的事情。

 

(2) sorrow:指不幸或失望所引起的悲傷。

 

(3) grief:指特殊處境或原因造成的強烈苦惱與悲痛,尤其指死亡,語氣比sorrow更強烈。

 

(4) misery:著重痛苦的可悲狀態。


字詞搭配

(1) puzzle out 想出……的答案

It took me some time to puzzle out the meaning of the unfamiliar word.

(2) puzzle one’s way through 奮力將……完成

Louise puzzled her way through the difficult Latin vocabulary.

(3) crossword puzzle 拼字遊戲

(4) jigsaw puzzle 拼圖遊戲

live 衍生出以下四個常見的形容詞:

live

實況轉播的;現場表演的;活的。例如:a live television show

living

活生生的;生活的。這字是 dead 的反義字,因此課文「生物」寫成 living things。其他例子:living death「活受罪;生不如死」、living hell「活地獄」、living conditions「生活條件」。

lively

生動的;活潑的。例如:a lively tunea lively description of a football game

alive

有活力的;活著的。alive指本來有死的可能,但仍活著。注意 凡是加上 a-字首而轉變成的形容詞,例如astrayawakeasleep,都不可以放名詞前面修飾該名詞,只能放名詞後面。



補充資料

1. attend, take part in, join 三者的差異:(配合T-85

(1) 「參加」會議、活動,要用attend,例如:attend a meetingattend a wedding,這種「參加」常指露個面,並不是長期成為某個組織活動的一分子。

(2) 「參加」組織、比賽、活動,要用 take part in,例如:take part in the Olympic Gamestake part in a play

(3) attend 相反,join是成為某個組織活動中的一個角色,所以「參加」黨派、組織,要用 join,例如:join a clubjoin the army

2. attendance attention 的延伸補充:(配合T-85

(1) perfect attendance award 全勤獎

(2) attendance bonus 員工從不請假,每個月可以領到的全勤獎金

(3) come to one’s attention 引起某人的注意

It has come to my attention that he always disappears for a while in the afternoon.

(4) pay attention to 注意

You had better pay attention to your teacher in class.

(5) center of attention 注目焦點

She enjoys being the center of attention wherever she goes.

3. amaze, shock, surprise, stun的比較:(配合T-87

(1) amaze 字首 a- 意即 to,後面 maze 即「迷宮」。可想而知,amaze彷彿是面對一座複雜難解的迷宮時,內心那種驚訝和迷惑的感覺。

(2) shock 有「休克;電擊」的意思,所以可以感覺得出shock是指壞消息或負面事件所帶來的「震驚」。

(3) surprise 主要是指因意料之外的事情所引發的驚奇,好壞事都有可能。

(4) stun staystopstare 同源,這些字都有「靜止不動」的意思,因此 stun 是指極度驚嚇,被嚇得目瞪口呆、不知所措。從stun繼續衍生出來的 astonish(字首 a- to,字尾-ish 無義,字根 ston stun)和 astound(字首 a- to,後接字根stun的變體)也都有「使某人驚訝」的意思。

4. adventure, venture, risk的比較:(配合T-87

(1) adventure venture 這兩個字系出同源,-ture 為名詞字尾,字根 vent come,字首ad- to,因此 advent有「來臨」的意思,等於 coming,所以 adventure 有「到此一遊」的意味,指人生有刺激性的奇遇經歷或驚險事件。

(2) 去掉字首再衍生的 venture 則是指冒著生命財產的危險,常常用在商業投資上。

(3) 此外 risk 是指面對可能發生負面結果的風險,例如:at the risk of losing his life

5.board的相關補充:(配合T-85

(1) above board (交易等)光明正大的/地

It’s better for you to be very above board about this matter.

(2) on board 搭乘(車、船等)

Have all the passengers gone/gotten on board yet?

(3) room and board 膳宿(費)

Room and board is $200 a week.

(4) boarder 寄宿生

(5) boarding school 提供飲食、住宿的學校

(6) boarding pass 登機證

(7) boarding gate 登機門

字詞搭配

(1) emotional quotient (EQ) 情緒商數

A person with a high EQ can forgive and forget; they don’t get angry easily.

(2) arouse/excite/stir (up) emotions 激起情感

control/suppress emotions 壓抑情感

(3) emoticon emotion(情緒)和 icon(圖像、圖示)組合而成,意指「情緒臉譜、表情符號」(由標點符號組成用以表達情感的符號,通常出現在電子郵件或網路聊天中,用以營造輕鬆友好的氣氛)。

 

補充資料

 

1. university 的相關補充:(配合T-80

 

attend/enter/go to         + university/college       上大學

 

finish/leave/graduate from                         大學畢業

 

注意以上用法 university 都不必加冠詞。加上去文法也正確,但是意思不同,道理跟 go to school一樣,請揣摩以下類似用法:

1

watch TV 看電視節目

vs.

watch the TV 注視著電視機

2

go to church 做禮拜

go to the church 去教堂(參加婚禮等)

3

go to sea 去當水手

go to the sea 去海邊(游泳等)

4

go to bed 就寢

go to the bed 去床鋪那裡

2. forest 的相關補充:(配合T-85

 

(1) conserve/preserve a forest 保護森林

 

(2) cut down a forest 砍伐森林

 

(3) not see the forest for the trees 見樹不見林(只注意小處而忽略大處)

 

 

 

 

human adj. 人類的;(合乎)人性的

I believe that human nature(人性)is good, not bad.

To err is human; to forgive (is) divine.(犯錯乃人之常情,寬恕乃神之聖行。)

注意 表示「人」的單複數變化有規則型和不規則型兩種,請見以下表格:

human

humans

羅馬人

Roman

Romans

德國人

German

Germans

法國人

Frenchman

Frenchmen

新鮮人

freshman

freshmen

中國人

Chinese

Chinese

日本人

Japanese

Japanese

 

 


延伸補充

字辨 aboardabroad

(1) aboard adv. 在車、飛機、船上 on board 如:get aboard

(2) abroad adv. 到(在)國外 如:live/study abroad

 

延伸補充

比較collegeuniversity的差異:

(1) In the UK, a college is similar to a vocational school(職業學校), where students learn a job skill. Colleges don’t give degrees.

(2) In the US, a college gives the bachelor’s degree. Also, a college is made up of several departments. A university consists of several colleges. Moreover, besides the bachelor’s degree, a university gives higher degrees, namely master’s and doctoral degrees.

字詞搭配

(1) national/private/state university 國立/私立/州立大學

(2) open university 空中大學

 

延伸補充

(1) attendance book 簽到簿

(2) check/take attendance 點名 take the roll

(3) attend to 處理;照料 deal with, cope with, handle

I must go now; I have other business to attend to.

 

 

 

violence n. [U] 猛烈;暴力

Many parents do not want their children to see violence on TV.

violate vt. 施暴;違反;侵犯

Our privacy should not be violated.

violation n. [C,U] 違反;侵犯

He was fined NT$2,000 for violation of a traffic regulation.

字詞搭配

(1) do violence to 傷害;違反(規則);歪曲

This newspaper’s reports are not always reliable; they often do violence to the truth.

(2) domestic violence 家庭暴力

Jackson has a hot temper, and his children are often the victims of domestic violence.

 

字詞搭配

(1) bring/put...into force 施行(法律等)

They have decided to put the new law into force next year.

(2) in force (法律)有效;施行中

The old traffic law is still in force.

(3) join forces 協力;聯合

It is necessary for the police to join forces with the public to fight against crime.

(4) air force 空軍

(5) the armed forces 三軍


延伸補充

anthropology 字根 anthrop 即「人」;-logy源自 logic 「邏輯」,亦即 -logy 是「一套邏輯思考理論」而演變成「學問」的意思;所以 anthropology 是研究人的學問。而anthrop 字根套上代表「愛」的字首 phil-就變成 philanthropist「慈善家」。


 

延伸補充

(1) estimate vt. 估計

It is estimated that the number of people killed by the tsunami was around 500,000.

estimate n. 估計

My estimate is that the house is worth twenty million dollars.

(2) overestimate v. ……評價過高;高估

They overestimated the value of the house and paid too much for it.


延伸補充

(1) set about +Ving/N 著手;開始

A team of volunteers set about the task with great determination.

(2) set aside 留下;儲存

They set aside some money every month to buy a new house.

(3) set up 設立;建立

He planned to set up a business after working for five years.

(4) set off 出發;動身

This is the plan for the outing: we will get up at six, have breakfast at seven, and set off for our destination at eight.


 

 

 

延伸補充

dream away 虛度(光陰等)

Don’t dream your life away.



lead to 促成;導致 
bring about, result in, give rise to, cause(因在前,果在後)

 

Eating too much can lead to weight gain.

 

延伸補充

(1) lead to的反義詞為result/arise/stem from, be caused by,表「起因於;由於」(果在前,因在後。)

The problem resulted from poor planning.

The landslide stemmed from the heavy rain.

(2) lead to 通往

All roads lead to Rome.

字詞研究

 

 

1. (1) 字尾 -ous 加在名詞後成為形容詞,表「多……的」、「……性的」、「有……特點的」、「像……的」、「不停地做……的」等意思,例如:mountainousgloriouswondrouspoisonousjoyousvigorousgenerous等。

 

(2) 字尾 -ious 原出自拉丁文的形容詞字尾 -ous,其i是語幹的最後一個母音,有時只是單純為了便於發音而增添的,例如:consciouspreciousnutritiousfurious等。

 

(3) 字尾 -eous則為 -iful的別體,例如:beauteous beautiful)等。

補充一些較常見的字尾:

-able(形容詞)

可以……

washable

unbearable

-ation(名詞)

動作造成的狀態或結果

examination

combination

-ize(動詞)

使某物更大程度地具有某種特點

modernize

hospitalize

-er(名詞)

做某事的人

dancer

photographer

-ship(名詞)

身分、地位、資格、技能、狀況

friendship

scholarship

-ity(名詞)

具有某種特性的狀態或事物

regularity

responsibility

-ing(分詞)

動作、過程

swimming

parking

-istic(形容詞)

具有……特質的人/事/物

futuristic

realistic

 

補充例句

1. Don’t go near that dog. It looks dangerous.

2. Dr. Bordie always gives humorous lectures, so we don’t want to miss any of his classes.

3. The little girl was not courageous enough to go into the dark woods.

4. Tom is adventurous. He often travels to distant deserts and tropical rain forests.

5. Grace is a famous movie actress who has many fans.

6. Ben got so nervous before his speech that he forgot most of it.

7. The puppy seems to be curious about everything it sees.

8. There are various kinds of desserts for us to choose from in the restaurant.


補充資料

比較 event, incident, accident, affair, matter, thing的差異:(配合T-80

(1) event:指「事件」、「大事」,例如:「一週大事」即 the most important event of the week

(2) incident:指「突發事件」,通常是不愉快的事。字義涵蓋在 event 範圍下,和 accident 用法有部分重疊。

(3) accident:指「意外不幸的事」。

(4) affair:指「跟某人、某物、某地有關的事件」或「該做的事務」; 指「公共事務」時,常作複數。

(5) matter:指「一件考慮中或需要處理的事」,例如:a matter of no account 「無關緊要的事」。

(6) thing:詞意籠統,多半指不太具體的事。

 

補充資料

1. affect 的字義探究:(配合T-88

affect 字首 af- to,字根 fect doact。因此 affect 等於片語 act on 「對……起作用」,例如:

These medical herbs are said to act on the heart. (據說這些藥草會對心臟起作用。)

2. way 相關的片語:(配合T-88

(1) all the way 一路上;完全地

She didn’t say anything all the way back home.

(2) by way of 經由

I’ll go to France by way of Thailand.

(3) get/have one’s (own) way 為所欲為

You can’t always get your way. I simply won’t put up with it.

(4) give way to 崩潰;讓步

He refused to give way to that man’s demands.

(5) elbow/inch/fight/push one’s way to.../out of...

一路推擠緩慢移動推擠……/出……

(6) work one’s way through college 半工半讀念完大學

(7) bribe one’s way to power 靠行賄取得權力

 

寫作園地

教學說明

本單元在讓同學複習對等連接詞(例如:and, so, but, for, or)的概念,進而用來合併句子,使其有所變化。而對等連接詞依其意義,可分為下列四種:

1. 累積連接詞,用來將所連接的各部分累加起來,例如:and, both...and..., not only...but also..., as well as, neither...nor... 等。

I came to see him and tell him the truth.

Both Peter and Linda work here.

Not only you but also he has to be responsible for it.

2. 反義連接詞,用來表示前後所說的意義恰好相反或相互對比,例如:but, yet, while 等。

My grandma is over seventy, but she is still active.

He is rich, while his brother is very poor.

3. 選擇連接詞,用來將兩個部分連在一起,再從中選擇一個,如:or, not...but..., either...or...等。

I love the girl not because she is beautiful but because she is kind.

You can stay or leave. It’s up to you.

Either he or I am wrong.

4. 推理連接詞,連接兩個子句,用來表示原因或結果。例如:for, so等。

You must be happy, for you are laughing.

John went to bed early, so he could get up early the next morning.

 

補充練習

請同學填入 and, so, but, for or

1. My friends study every night,     I don’t need to.

2. Which is more important to you, love     bread?

3. Bill has much homework to do today,     he has to go home now.

4. Turn to the right,     you will find the movie theater.

5. I’d like to go to your party,     I have to go to Tainan on business.

6. Do what you are told,     you will be punished.

7. The reporter walked toward the actress     asked her several questions.

8. He felt no fear,     he had prepared well.

9. The bookstore was closed,     I didn’t buy the book I needed.

10. They must start early,     it will take three hours to drive to their destination.

 

參考答案:

1. but 2. or  3. so  4. and  5. but

6. or  7. and 8. for 9. so  10. for

 

補充資料

比較 man, mankind, people, human, human being, humanity 的差異:
(配合T-86

(1) man:作「人類」解時,不能加冠詞;加冠詞字義是「男人」。

(2) mankind:集合名詞,指「全人類」,因此字尾不可以加s,前面也不可以加冠詞,但是可以用形容詞修飾。

(3) people:指「人群」而非「人類」,字尾也不可以加 s

(4) human:可數名詞。因此指一個人時,記得加 a;泛指所有人類時,記得要加 s

(5) human being:用法和 human 差不多;但是在一些習慣說法, 兩者不能互換, 如:「人傳人」的疾病只能說human-to-human transmission,不可以說human being-to-human-being transmission

(6) humanity:集合名詞,多用在文學作品。前面也不可以加冠詞。

 

背景補充資料

黑猩猩的英文名為 chimpanzee 學名為 Pan troglodytes,是黑猩猩屬的兩種動物之一,但由於黑猩猩和人類的基因相似度達98.77%(最近有些研究顯示為99.4%),所以亦有學者主張將黑猩猩屬的動物併入人屬。黑猩猩原產地在非洲西部及中部,英文名chimpanzee在非洲土語中意指「小精靈」,屬於哺乳綱靈長目,平日成群地生活,每個群體就像一個部落。

 

黑猩猩體多毛,四肢修長且皆可握物,牠們能以半直立的方式行走。黑猩猩經常會和大猩猩搞混,但牠們倆是不同的,黑猩猩的體型比大猩猩小。黑猩猩的血型以A為主,有少量O型,但沒有B型。M血型和N血型也有發現。據說有一次深圳動物園的黑猩猩受傷了需要輸血,但是又找不到A型的猩猩血,於是醫生輸了一些人的A型血液給黑猩猩,救了牠一命。黑猩猩有48條染色體(24對)。黑猩猩細胞色素C上的胺基酸順序與人類的相同。母猩猩懷孕期達230天,一胎生下一子。黑猩猩的智商相當於人類5~7歲。

 

黑猩猩的智商較高,已知牠們能使用一些簡單的工具來進行一些工作,如捉白蟻。生物學家多次觀察到雌黑猩猩可以製作工具來捕獵叢猴。黑猩猩群落間可爆發戰爭。死去的敵方黑猩猩可能被吃掉。

 

黑猩猩的食性十分普遍,牠們會利用不同的方法來獲取不同的食物,例如黑猩猩會利用舔滿口水的細枝來黏螞蟻,並利用兩塊石器放置、敲開果實。黑猩猩有時會捕食一些猴類(如紅尤猴、黑白尤猴),而黑猩猩在捕食猴類時會策劃戰術。由於黑猩猩無法在樹上捕捉靈敏的尤猴,因此有一隻黑猩猩會先從陸地上超過樹上的尤猴群,而其他黑猩猩則會從樹上將牠們聚集並驅趕到埋伏地點,當陸上的黑猩猩到達埋伏地點時會在樹下等候,此時其他的黑猩猩會堵住尤猴群的路,只留下一條有埋伏的通道,當尤猴進入這條路時,埋伏的黑猩猩會把牠趕到地上獵殺。

 

最近有些研究顯示黑猩猩具有使用語言的能力,然而這點仍存有很大的爭議,目前科學界普遍的看法是牠們並沒有語言能力。

  • 參考資料: http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E9%BB%91%E7%8C%A9%E7%8C%A9

 

補充資料

1. the same 的用法:(配合T-82

the same...as/that... 和……一樣的;正是……

This machine works in exactly the same way as the other one does.

He is still the same funny person that I met ten years ago.

2. force 的相關補充:(配合T-82

force + O + to VR/into N/into V-ing 迫使 urge + O + to VR

As there was no bus, I was forced to take a taxi.

Ill health forced him into early retirement/retiring early.

3. 比較sadness, sorrow, grief, misery的差異:(配合T-86

(1) sadness:指為他人覺得難過的悲傷、或發生了不想發生的事情。

(2) sorrow:指不幸或失望所引起的悲傷。

(3) grief:指特殊處境或原因造成的強烈苦惱與悲痛,尤其指死亡,語氣比sorrow更強烈。

(4) misery:著重痛苦的可悲狀態。

 

補充文章

Born on April 3, 1934, Jane Goodall was raised in a closely knit family and was greatly influenced by her mother and grandmother. When she was about two years old, her father gave her a gift that she still treasures today. It is a toy chimpanzee named Jubilee after a chimp that was famous at the London Zoo then, and it opened her to the animal world. With her family there lived a large number of pets of all types. One of Goodall’s favorites was a dog named Rusty. From an early age, she loved to play with and take care of the animals. She often dreamed of working closely with animals in the future, a dream that did eventually come true for her.

 

At nineteen, Goodall moved to London to be a secretary and learn some practical skills. Then, she returned to the town of Bournemouth, her birthplace, to work as a waitress to save money for her first trip. At twenty-three, she had saved enough to go by ship to Kenya, in East Africa, to visit her friend. There she met Louis Leakey and was hired to be his secretary at the National Museum. Later, she was asked to accompany Leakey and his wife to the Serengeti plain, a very isolated and remote area at that time. They did monotonous, tedious work digging for ancient fossils there.

 

After observing how serious and methodical Goodall was, Leakey chose her to do a study of chimps. In 1960 she went to Tanzania, where she lived among chimpanzees in a remote animal preserve, recording the animals’ behavior and interactions. For three months she made little progress, but she persisted. Her breakthrough came one day when she saw a male chimpanzee use a blade of grass to pick up termites to eat, much as a man would use a spoon. He would also use leaves to get rainwater. This discovery was important, for the fact that some animals can use tools was unknown to most scientists at the time. Goodall also noticed that chimpanzees used nonverbal behavior to show their emotions, like patting each other on the back, holding hands, and even holding grudges if they were offended. Her observations have given the world insight into the striking similarities between humans and chimps, which range from how chimps raise their children to the way they use tools and solve problems.

 

Later, Goodall’s interest gradually shifted from making observations of chimps in the jungle to using that knowledge to help the world. In 1977, she founded the Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education and Conservation to provide support for field research on wild chimpanzees. Then, she established “Wildlife Awareness Weeks” around the world to boost local economies and aid conservation by providing jobs. Also, she formed a group called “Roots & Shoots” to teach children around the world to respect all living things. These days, the number of chimpanzees is dwindling because humans are destroying their habitats. Now, Jane Goodall constantly travels around the world lecturing and raising money to preserve our wildlife. “I love living in the forest with the chimpanzees,” she said. “I’d much rather be there than travel around from city to city.”

  • 參考資料:http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/goodall.html

 

Critical Thinking

Q1 Why do you think people in Goodall’s time would have wanted to study chimpanzees? (Hypothesizing another’s point of view)

   參考答案:Due to the physical similarity of chimpanzees and humans, understanding chimpanzees better might offer answers to some questions about human evolution and the future of the human race. In other words, understanding more about chimpanzees would also help us understand ourselves better.

Q2 Jane Goodall began her study of chimpanzees in the African rain forest in 1960. Why do you think that many people said she wouldn’t last three weeks in the rain forest? (Hypothesizing another’s point of view and identifying social/cultural values)

   參考答案:Other than the fact that she was young (26 at that time) and might be facing physical danger in the forests of Africa, the general society at that time had certain expectations of a woman’s role. Back then, women were expected to marry right after high school and then become obedient wives, diligent homemakers, and good mothers. They were considered unable to think for themselves and often not allowed to voice their own opinions. So, Goodall’s plan to study in the African rain forest would naturally be looked upon doubtfully.

Q3 “Goodall also set herself apart from the traditional conventions of the time by naming the animals in her studies of primates instead of assigning each a number. Numbering was a nearly universal practice at the time, and thought to be important in reducing the potential for emotional attachment to the subject being studied.” Do you think that scientists and researchers should name the animal subjects being studied by them or number them? (Developing a logical argument for or against an issue)

   參考答案:I think that researchers should name their subjects, like Dr. Goodall, if they are hoping to gain a deeper understanding of the animals’ social behavior by interacting with them. However, if the researcher is only doing experimental research and data gathering, then I don’t think it’s necessary to name the animals. They then would risk becoming too attached to the subjects of their study, and this could affect the accuracy of their research results and observations. Also, numbering the subjects being studied is more convenient and efficient if there are large numbers, as this will make it easier to compile and analyze the data. In conclusion, I think that different management methods should be used for different numbers of subjects and different research purposes, but we should always keep an open mind and be willing to try new research methods. Dr. Goodall is a good example of a scientist who achieved great success by trying new methods in her studies of primates.

  • 參考資料:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane-Goodall

 

 

 


P.83 C  TFFTF  

 1. It goes without saying that the study of wild animals is important to us. First of all, it leads to a greater  understanding of nature. The study of wild animals gives us the opportunity to see nature for what it really is---various life forms interacting with one another in amazing ways. Our world is full of all kinds of wild animals, and they play an important part in the balance of nature. When one species goes extinct(絕種的), others are affected. When we study animal life and learn of animals' habits and behavior, we'll see that our lives are actually closely related to  those of all the other animals. Then, we come to realize why preservign nature and natural habitats(棲息地) is critical(absolutely necessary要緊的) to homan survival(存活).

2. I remember when I was young, I dreamed of becoming a piano teacher. Although I don't learn how to play the piano now, I realize half of my dream---making a living by teaching English though not the piano. I feel glad that I can have a stable job and teach you in Penghu.

每個人想必都曾有過夢想,也許現在因為某些原因而難以實現。不管怎樣,有夢想就有希望。

 


P.95 Listening Practice

 

 

 

聽力腳本(Scripts)

A. It was never an easy thing for me to study chimpanzees in Africa alone. At first, the animals ran away 1in fear once I walked near; it took me months to get close to them. But, I didn’t give up. Instead, I walked through the forest every day and watched these animals from 2afar without disturbing them. On many days, I would watch the chimpanzees through 3binoculars from the top of a hill. 4Little by little, the chimpanzees got used to my presence and even became my friends.

B. I went into the Tanzanian forest to study chimpanzees when I was twenty-six. In the early morning, I would wake up and start to 5do my research in the forest. Late at night, I would stay in the tent recording and thinking about what I had learned during the day. If you want to do this kind of work yourself, just think about it: What items would you need to have with you? What would your camp look like?

C. I loved animals even as a child. When I was just over one year old, my father gave me a toy chimpanzee, which I named Jubilee. At first, the whole family was afraid that I would be scared of the black and furry animal doll, 6only to find that Jubilee became one of my favorite toys. I 7carried Jubilee with me everywhere. Today, more than sixty-five years later, Jubilee—now completely bald from so many hugs—sits on my 8dresser in England!

 

腳本解析

1. in fear 擔心地;害怕地

2. afar 遙遠地

3. binoculars 雙筒望遠鏡

4. little by little  gradually 漸漸地

5. do/conduct/pursue one’s research (某人)作研究

6. only to VR ( but S + V)

She tried to open the door, only to find that it was locked.

7. carry/bring/take sth. with sb. (某人)隨身帶著(某物)

8. dresser  dressing table 梳妝臺

答案:  CBA  1.FFT  2.TFT  3.FTF

 

 



課本p.94參考答案:

Name of the project

Caring for Disadvantaged Children

Goal to reach

To support the education of children in remote mountainous areas.

Reasons to do it

1. Geographical and financial factors have reduced these children’s ability to survive in society.

2. Helping these children may help to change the world.

What to do

1. Collect used books and other school supplies and send them to these children.

2. Provide them with a tutorial system.

3. Offer financial aid and counseling for their families.

 


P.96  P.97

1. Travel can broaden our mind.

Reading can deepen our wisdom.

Travel can broaden our mind, and reading can deepen our wisdom.

2. Water is plentiful in Lijiang.

People there do not waste it at all.

Water is plentiful in Lijiang, but people there do not waste it at all.

3. These streams coming from melting snow may run along the streets.

These streams may go underground.

These streams coming from melting snow may run along the streets or (they) may go underground.

4. All the villagers take part in the cleaning operation.

The streets become clean very soon.

All the villagers take part in the cleaning operation, so the streets become clean very soon.

5. The water flows over the streets.

The water gates on the canal are closed.

The water flows over the streets, for the water gates on the canal are closed.


1. so she set out to find an answer/so she started looking for the answer

2. and staying outdoors as long as possible

3. and made her way to Kenya

4. but the officials (were) worried about her safety

5. for she spent 40 years there doing research/for she spent 40 years doing research there


 


go Dutch的起源

To "go Dutch," also known as a "Dutch treat" or a "Dutch date," implies an informal agreement for each person to pay for his or her own expenses during a planned date or outing. The decision to "go Dutch" is usually made in advance in order to avoid any confusion when the bill arrives or the tickets are purchased. Under certain social and financial circumstances, the idea to "go Dutch" allows larger groups of friends or co-workers to enjoy a night on the town without the worry of one host footing the entire bill. During a romantic dating situation, however, the suggestion to "go Dutch" may not be as well received.

 

Many people agree to "go Dutch" as a tactful way to level the financial playing field. One friend may feel uncomfortable with the idea of another friend in better financial shape always footing the bill. When two or more people agree to "go Dutch," each is free to spend within his or her personal entertainment budget. Even if one person can afford to order the most expensive item on the menu, the rest of the group is not obligated to spend outside their own limits.

 


 

 The origin of the phrase "go Dutch" or "Dutch treat" can be traced back(追溯) to a time when England and the Netherlands fought constantly over trade routes and political boundaries during the 17th century. The British used the term "Dutch" in a number or derogatory or demeaning ways, including "Dutch courage" (bravery through alcohol) and "Dutch treat", which was actually no treat at all. The Dutch were said to be very stingy(吝嗇的,小氣的) with their wealth, almost miserly, so the British used the word "Dutch" informally to imply all sorts of negative behaviors.

 


 

From: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-does-it-mean-when-you-go-dutch.htm

 




jigsaw 線鋸 如下圖


 

jigsaw puzzle就是指大人小孩都愛玩的拼圖遊戲囉

以下是various jigsaw puzzles 各式各樣的拼圖








 還有sukodu puzzle(數獨)

 

還有一種遊戲在英文報紙或雜誌上常可以看到的

就是 crossword puzzles(縱橫字謎;填字遊戲)

下面有三個crossword puzzles 一起來玩一下吧!







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