200811240847hope/wish,希望大不同

hope/expect/plan/intend/think
這些動詞在表示計畫或願望、意圖時,可用一般式表未來,如
I plan to quit very soon . In fact, I have decided to quit on my next birthday . My twenty-first birthday is two weeks from now. On that day, I intend to somke my last cigarette.

當名詞時,
hope 翻譯作「希望」 例:Never give up hope. 不要放棄希望。

wish 翻譯作「願望」 例:Make a wish. 許個願。


當動詞時,
(1)用法相同:

[hope/wish + to V]

I hope/wish to see you again soon. 希望很快再見到你。

[hope/wish for + 名詞]

We hope/wish for a better future. 我們期望更好的未來。


(2) 用法不同:hope/wish + that子句

wish + that 子句 是假設語法,但hope + that 子句 是未來式


I hope that he will come. 我希望他能來。→究竟來不來還不知道

I wish that he would come. 我真希望他能來。→確定不會來了


(3) wish有而hope無的用法

I wish you to come. 我希望你能來。

I hope you to come. →無此用法


I wish you a merry Christmas. 祝你聖誕快樂。

I hope you a merry Christmas. →無此用法
================
我們一般都是用wish來表示希望較渺茫的期待,hope是用來表示希望較大的期待。
從語法的角度來講:兩詞都是希望的意思,但前者表示客觀,後者代表主觀意識。
在某些時候我也可把hope翻譯成希望,wish翻譯成祝願,這樣看起來會更顯而易見一些。
WISH用法
vt. [W]該動詞通常不用進行式。
1.祝,祝願;向...道(早安等)
        Wish + 人 + N
  I wish you a merry Christmas.
        I wish you happy everyday. 我祝願你永遠幸福。

2.但願
        Wish +(that)+ 人 + 過去式動詞<==是假設語法
        該動詞的受詞不可以是一個名詞或代名詞,但可以是子句或其他片語。
  I wish I could fly.
  I wish it would snow.
  I wish you wouldn’t cry.
3.想要;希望,渴望
        Wish + to V
        動詞+受詞+有to的不定式
        指該及物動詞在受詞後尚須接副詞或介詞片語。
        動詞+受詞+過去分詞
        動詞+受詞+形容詞
        I wish everything ready. 我希望一切準備妥當。
        What do you wish me to do? 你想要我做什麼?
        I wish to go, but my mother wishes me to stay at home. 我想去,但母親希望我待在家。
vi.[W]
1. 希望,想要
We have everything we can wish for. 我們希望得到的東西都有了。
n.[C]
1. 希望,願望[(+for)][+to-v][+(that)]
Her wish to become a doctor has come true. 她想當醫生的願望實現了。
2. 心願,想要的東西[C]
3. 祝福,祈頌[P]
Please send her my good wishes when you write to her. 你給她寫信時,請代我向她致意。
------------------------
HOPE用法
vt. [Y]該動詞的受詞不可以是一個名詞或代名詞,但可以是子句或其他片語。
1.Hope + to V
  表示未來希望要做的事
  I hope to get there.
I hope to see you and your family soon. 我期待不久能見到你和你的家人。
2.Hope + that
I hope that you will be a doctor. 我希望你會成為一個醫生。
I hope that he will succeed. 我期望他會成功。
3.Hope + to have p.p
  表示過去想做的事,但還沒做
   I hope to have finished by Monday.
vi.
1. 希望,期待[(+for)]
Everyone hopes for snow. 人人盼望下雪。
n.
1. 希望,期望[U][C][(+of)]
You mustn't give up hope. 你一定不要絕望。
2. 可能性;期待[U][C][(+of)](+that)
You have no hope of being accepted. 你不可能被接受。
We have a slim hope of success. 我們有一線成功的希望。
3. 被寄託希望的人(或物)[C]
You are my only hope. 你是我唯一的希望。

====================
want /would like/would love/need/offer

decide/agree/promise/refuse/expect

plan/intend/mean/hope

pretend/fail〈未能做的事〉/try/manage〈設法〉

seem/learn/need/appear/offer/are tend/(can't) afford/ (can't) wait...
以上加不定詞

---------------------------------------

enjoy/finish/mind/keep〈繼續〉/quit〈停止〉/discuss〈討論〉

practice/avoid〈避免〉/admit〈承認〉/deny〈否認〉/consider/

keep on〈繼續〉/think about/put off〈拖延〉/give up〈放棄〉/be worth〈值得〉

postpone, put off, keep, talk about

以上加動名詞

---------------------------------------

stop+ 動名詞→停止做某事

stop+不定詞→停下來去做別的事

remember+ 動名詞→記得曾經做過某事

remember+ 不定詞→ 記得要去做某事

forget+ 動名詞→做某事卻忘記

forget+不定詞→忘了去做某事

try+ 動名詞→試試看做某事

try+ 不定詞→盡力做某事

-------------------------------------------------

be busy+動名詞

have trouble+動名詞

---------------------------------------------

begin/start/continue/like/dislike/hate/love

加不定詞和動名詞都可以

------------------------------------------------
Five basic forms of the sentences:

1. S + V
        Birds fly.
        John usually sleeps only 5 hours a day.
        It is raining heavily.
        Mary came in.
        This machine does not work well.
        Birds fly in the sky.
        You cannot just depend on other people.

2. S + V + C
        You look beautiful.
        She feels good.
        (be, seem look, appear, feel, smell, taste, keep, remain, prove, become, get, grow, turn, come, go, fall, run)

        He acted as the manager of the company.
        This word functions as the subject.

3. S + V + O
        Everybody loves me.
        The car knocked the boy down.

        A. (to + V) :
        (1) attempt, begin, cease, decide, endeavor, expect, fear, forget, help, hope, intend, learn, like, love, mean, need, offer, plan, prefer, pretend, promise, propose, refuse, start, try, undertake, want, wish,
        (2) be, seem, appear, prove, turn out, happen, chance, care, long, agree, hesitate, fail, come, go, run, stop, etc.

        I don’t know where to go.

        B. V+ing(Gerund) :
        (1) admit, avoid, consider, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, give up, cannot help, mind, miss, practice, regret, cannot stand, stop, suggest, etc.
        (2) (both gerund and infinitive) cannot bear, begin, endure, forget, hate, intend, like, love, mean, need, prefer, remember, start, try, want, etc.
        (3) V+ing (participle) come, remain, stand, etc.

        We stopped smoking. They came running.

        C. that clause: acknowledge, admit, believe, command, confess, declare, demand, demonstrate, deny, doubt, expect, explain, fear, feel, hear, hope, imagine, know, mean, notice, perceive, prefer, propose, report, request, say, see, show, suggest, suppose, think, understand, urge, wish, etc.

        He suggested that we should leave right now.

        We complained that the place was too noisy.

        It seems that Jane is very smart.

        D. wh clause: ask, discover, discuss, doubt, find out, imagine, know, reveal, say, show, suggest, tell, understand, wonder, care, marvel, mind, etc.

        Do you know who he is? I wonder whether he will come or not.

        E. prep + O (pron. or n): buy, cash, choose, cook, get, leave, make, order, play, reach, save, spare, etc.

        I explained the problems to my boss.

        The police accused him of theft.

        Thank you for your kind letter.

        She gave the book to that boy.

4. S + V + Oi + Od
        A. O + O : accord, afford, allow, ask, bring, buy, cash, cause, choose, cook, deny, do, fetch, get, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, make, offer, order, owe, pass, pay, play, promise, reach, read, refuse, render, save, sell, send, show, sing, spare, teach, tell, wish, write, etc.
        She gave them the drinks.
        He offered me a ride.
        Will you do me a favor?

        B. O + that clause: (1) tell, show, teach, promise (2) assure, convince, inform, persuade, remind, warn.
        I told him that he was wrong.
        She promised me that she would finish the project by 10.
        They informed us that they would be late.

        C. O + wh clause: ask, show, teach, tell, inform: I asked him when the tower had been destroyed.

        Could you tell me how long you are going to stay?

        D. O+ wh + to V: My father told me how to assemble the bike.

5. S + V + O + OC
        A. O + C: keep, leave, find, make, render, elect, appoint, call, name, think, consider, believe, suppose, feel, know, judge, report, declare, paint, dye, boil, cut, push, throw, etc.

        She keeps her house clean.

        Everybody considers him a good man.

        He pushed the door open.

        B. O+ as + C: accept, acknowledge, characterize, choose, describe, know, interpret, rank, recognize, regard, represent, take, treat, view, etc.

        We regard him as the leader.

        She described her son as really clever.

        C. O+ p.p. : feel, find, hear, make, see, want, wish, etc. She heard her name called.

        D. O+ Ving: (1) see, hear, feel, find, behold, watch, observe, perceive, notice, catch, keep, leave, have, set, send. (2) understand, remember, recollect, imagine, fancy, hear of, like, hate, mind, object to, etc.
        Someone saw the man running away.

        I don’t like the boys playing about here.

        I cannot understand my daughter saying so.

        E. O+ to V: (1) advice, allow, ask, beg, cause, command, compel, encourage, entreat, expect, force, get, help, impel, implore, instruct, invite, lead, leave, like, mean, oblige, order, permit, persuade, promise, require, teach, tell, tempt, urge, want, wish, etc. (2) believe, consider, declare, feel, find, guess, judge, know, prove, report, see, suppose, think.

        We cannot allow the man to drink wine here.

        He declared himself to be a Republican.

        F. O+ V root: (1) make, let, bid, have, help (2) see, hear, feel, find, know, behold, watch, observe, perceive, notice, etc.
Let me come in.
        I saw the boy steal the box.


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http://tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qid=1106092713194
http://tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qid=1007071000510
http://www.liveabc.com/epaper/live/2006/01/20/paper.asp
http://ks.cn.yahoo.com/question/1406043003914.html
http://tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qid=1306031106584
www.cycu.edu.tw/~army/choice7/ Eng1.doc
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亞洲大學視覺傳達設計學系兼任講師 20120910-20170120
嶺東科技大學科技商品設計系兼任講師 20130220-20140110
國立交通大學應用藝術研究所碩士 論文:「以聯想與類比推理來激發創意之研究」,1998
國立成功大學工業設計學系學士






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