200905311635人因設計創始者Henry Dreyfuss/QUENCY輯

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德雷夫斯=德萊弗斯=德雷佛斯=德瑞佛斯=ヘンリー・ドレフュス

  亨利‧德萊弗斯Henry Dreyfuss (March 2, 1904 – October 5, 1972) 是美國第一代的工業設計師。在第一代工業設計師中,他在許多方面與眾不同。他不追求時髦的流線型,儘量避免風格上的誇張,並拒絕出於商業上的利益而對先天不足的產品做純粹的整容術。德雷夫斯的一生都與貝爾電話公司有密切的關係,是影響現代電話形式的最重要設計師。

  Henry Dreyfuss說:「假如人與產品的交點變為磨擦不和的點,那工業設計師是失敗了。另一方面,假如能讓人更安全、更舒適、更渴望購買、更有效率--或僅規畫能高興點--那設計師就成功了。」( " If the point of contact between the product and the people becomes a point of friction, then the industrial desinger has failed. If, on the other hand, people are made safer, more comfortable, more eager to purchase, more efficient - or just plan happier - the disigner has succeeded.")

生涯

  Dreyfuss生於紐約布魯克林。作為1930~1940年代的知名的工業設計師, Dreyfuss戲劇性地改良了許多消費產品的外觀、感覺、使用性。因為反對Raymond Loewy和其他的競爭者,Dreyfuss不曾是一名造形師(stylist):他運用常識和科學研究於設計問題上。他的作品遍及於大眾消費的領域,而且有著顯著的貢獻於人因工程、人體計測的領域。

  他出身於經營道具和戲裝的世家,16歲離開學校進入劇院,在那裡結識了蓋茨。在1924年, Dreyfuss在劇場設計師Norman Bel Geddes那裡當學徒,在1928年以前他就已經為許多劇院設計了250件舞台設計。1929年開設自己的設計室,從事劇場設計和工業設計。當時的美國工業似乎為胸懷大志的年輕設計師提供了幾乎是無限的機遇,德雷夫斯就是其中的一位。立即地且長久持續地獲得商業上的成功。在今日他的公司仍繼續以Henry Dreyfuss Associates(http://www.hda.net/)運作來服務主要的合作客戶。


設計

 「Western Electric 302」 桌上型電話,貝爾實驗室(Bell Laboratories) (1930, 生產於 1937-1950)一開始生產是金屬殼,1942年生產塑膠殼(black phenolic plastic)。ART DECO造形。
(QUENCY:這就是桌上型電話的原型,Dreyfuss以人因工程的知識,分析發話器與受話器與人體頭部的耳朶和嘴巴的距離,設計話筒。並將相關通信組件,置入於話座中。Western Electric 102是第一台將發話器與受話器給合成話筒的機種。在Western Electric 102和202的機型中,是另有個機箱來放相關的通信組件。)
  1930年,貝爾電話公司為10位藝術家每人提供1000美元,以資助他們設計未來電話機的形式,德雷夫斯就是其中之一。他認為僅憑臆想的外觀設計是行不通的,因而堅持與貝爾的工程師合作,「從內到外」(From the inside out)的設計原則。貝爾公司一開始認為這種方法可能會限制藝術性的發揮,但當發現提交的某些設計方案並不合適時,公司便改變了主意,而委託德雷夫斯以自己的方法進行設計。由於當時電話服務尚未受到市場的壓力,這就讓電話機能具有一種不會很快過時的形式、良好的使用性能和低廉的使用成本。1921年,貝爾公司曾率先推出一種由該公司工程師設計的話筒以取代老式的豎式機型。1937年,這種話筒又為德雷夫斯的「組合型」話筒所取代,該機先是用金屬製成的,1942年改用塑料機殼。這種新型話筒的設計毫不譁眾取寵,因而適用於家庭、辦公室等各種環境。機身的設計十分簡練,只保留了必要的部件。反覆的前期研究和實用測試保證了這種電話機易於使用。外形的簡潔,方便了清潔和維修,並減小了損壞的可能性。由於這一設計獲得了很大的成功,使貝爾公司聘請德雷夫斯作為設計顧問負責設計公司的全部產品。在20世紀50年代該公司產品就已達到100餘種。德雷夫斯的電話機因此走入了美國和世界的千家萬戶,成為現代家庭的基本設施。

me302

 

  在1933年他為General Electric設計全新的「平頂式」("flat-top")豪華型冰箱。eliminating the previously exposed refrigeration unit by placing it beneath the cabinet. 美國專利 No.2,114,880

 

dreyfuss_fridge_1934

 

他也為Sears & Roebuck設計了全新頂式運轉型洗衣機(Toperator washing machine)。

dreyfuss_washer

 

(http://www.jitterbuzz.com/aplsho.html)

  Henry was featured in a 1934 article, "Both Fish and Fowl," in Fortune magazine, written anonymously by George Nelson(1904–1986) , which had a dramatic impact on the new field of Industrial Design.

 

Hoover "Model 150" 真空吸塵器 (1936),有流線形的外罩。
  德雷夫斯於1934年,為胡佛吸塵器公司設計了一種新型吸塵器,同樣取得了成功。早期的胡佛吸塵器使用效率高,但外觀粗陋,表面飾有類似縫紉機花紋的圖案,表明它是為家庭主婦設計的。德雷夫斯的設計把電動機包容於一個簡潔的外殼之中,與圓滑的吸塵罩水平相接,兩者渾然一體,這是第一個用電木製作的塑膠罩。與其他廠家的吸塵器相比,他的設計是極為克制的,這反映了設計師一貫嚴謹的設計態度。當時不少吸塵器刻意模仿科幻電影中太空船的形狀,並採用閃閃發光的鍍鉻材料,藉以取悅於消費者。  

8-31-2006-12-51-14--air-waycharlie
照片自左至右:art deco Air-Way Model 35, "The Chief", the Dreyfuss designed Hoover Model 150 and sleek understated Hoover Model 64, "Citation."

 

  He designed a bottle for The American Thermos Bottle Company that appeared in 1936. Thermos Pitcher with Base and Lid, 1935(http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/2183), Tray, Match for Thermos Pitcher, c1935(http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/2184)

  
 the classic Westclox "Big Ben" Style 5 Chime Alarm (1939)
  He designed an alarm clock introduced in 1935, and later their famous Big Ben alarm clock in 1939.

style5


(The style 3, 5 and 6 Ben cases were designed by Henry Dreyfuss. The style 4 is a modification of style 3 and may also have been designed by Dreyfuss.
http://clockhistory.com/westclox/products/ben/style3/index.html
http://clockhistory.com/westclox/products/ben/style4/index.html
http://clockhistory.com/westclox/products/ben/style5/index.html
http://clockhistory.com/westclox/products/ben/style6/index.html
http://clockhistory.com/westclox/products/ben/
http://clockhistory.com/westclox/company/ads/benseries.html)

In 1936, his design of a Mercury locomotive debuted. It featured cutout holes in the "white-walled" driver wheels, lit by concealed spotlights at night.

    * the New York Central Railroad's streamlined Mercury train, both locomotive and passenger cars of the NYC's "Twentieth Century Limited" (1938)
  In 1938 Henry Dreyfuss was commissioned by the New York Central to design the streamlined train sets in Art Deco style, with the locomotive and passenger cars rendered in blues and grays (the colors of the New York Central). The streamlined sets were inaugurated on June 15, 1938. His design was probably the most famous American passenger train of all time.

  An upgraded version of his Mercury design, the new J 3 4-6-4 Hudson locomotives featured finned bullet-noses reminiscent of ancient warrior helmets.

6a00d834527fa069e20111686034db970c-800wi


    * the styled John Deere Model A and Model B tractors (1938)
  在1937年, Elmer McCormick,John Deere的代表,坐著Twentieth Century Limited火車到紐約去。 他要去付約位於麥迪遜(Madison)大街501號,在52街上,在辦公室.....Henry Dreyfuss Associates。
  Dreyfuss,33歲,最近剛接到紐約中央鐵路(New York Central Railroad,NYCRR)的指派。他們已設定他的公司來重新設計他們的高級的跨全國的火車, Twentieth Century Limited,讓它「看起來更像20世紀的運輸系統」。McCormick告訴Dreyfuss:「我們希望你的協助可以讓我們的牽引機更適於銷售。」
"John Deere, A History of the Tractor", by Randy Leffingwell. ISBN 978-0-7603-3377-8 (http://forum.atlasrr.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=49490)

JohnDeereA
照片左邊是原始的產品,右邊是經Dreyfuss設計後的產品。


    * the popular「民主之城」 "Democracity" model city of the future at the 1939 New York World's Fair
  the Democracity model in the Perisphere, representing an American city and its surrounding suburbs of the year 2039. He also designed the AT&T pavilion, featuring Vodar, an early voice synthesizer.

http://morrischia.com/david/portfolio/boozy/research/democracity.html


    * the Wahl-Eversharp Skyline fountain pen (1940).
  The Skyline was produced by Wahl in Chicago, IL. during the period 1941-1948. In 1945, it was the best selling pen in the US. Mr. Dreyfuss designed the 20th Century Ltd (shown below) in the late 1930s, prior to the 1940 design of the Skyline.
  Now, let’s take a look at his pen design. I have posted a picture of the clip and bonnet of the pen next to the front of the train and you can see the similarity. Below is a picture of three burgundy Skylines that I have restored over the last couple of years. They are lever fillers and very easy to restore, except for two things. The barrels tend to be quite brittle and are notorious for cracking if care is not taken when separating the section from the barrel. Gentle heat is recommended and I use my heat gun carefully. Also, the later Skylines had breather tubes which can be tricky to restore as they also tend to be brittle and care needs to be taken here as well.
  Eversharp Skylines were produced in numerous colors, designs and caps over the 7 years of their production. Three sizes were available: Executive, Standard, and Demi. Most of these pens found today are of the standard size. The Eversharp nibs I have found in these pens have been in quite good condition, and some can be found with a bit of flexibility.
(http://munsonpens.wordpress.com/2007/12/14/henry-dreyfuss-and-the-20th-century-limited/)

burgundyskylines_edited


    *  Ingraham Company Wafer wall clock, Model SK 174(ca. 1940)
http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/2460

wafer


  At the start of the war in 1941 Dreyfuss, along with Raymond Loewy and Walter Dorwin Teague were involved in the design of strategy rooms for the Joint Chiefs of Staff (美國參謀首長聯席會議)(http://www.jcs.mil/). Dreyfuss built four 13-foot rotating globes, one each for Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill, and the Joint Chiefs.

  The Society of Industrial Designers (SID) was established in 1944 by 15 practitioners, including Dreyfuss, who served as its first Vice-President. After the war in 1946, Henry hired William F. H. Purcell and Robert Hose, both of whom became partners in the firm.


    * the General Electric Company Steam Iron(1948)

iron01dailyicon


    * 「Western Electric 500」桌上型電話 (1949), a Bell System standard for years。這是原「Western Electric 302」的改良版。
  In 1949 the model 500 desk telephone was put into service by AT&T. It was the first to be offered in colors other than black beginning in 1954, and was still the most commonly used model in the US in 1995.

800px-Rotaryphone2


  Dreyfuss appeared on the cover of Forbes Magazine in 1951.

    * the Honeywell T87 圓形掛壁式恆溫器(thermostat) (1953).
In 1953 Minneapolis Honeywell introduced a circular wall thermostat designed by Henry. Dreyfuss began consulting with the company in 1937.

800px-Honeywell_round_thermostat

 

  Dreyfuss published Designing for People in 1955, an autobiography that included the first publication of "Joe" and "Josephine" anthropological charts. Dreyfuss focused on design problems related to the human figure, working on problems from "the inside out", and believed that machines adapted to people would be the most efficient. The technical discipline called Human Factors was begun during the war and resulted in standards for the design of military equipment. Such data formed the basis of post-war design standards by Dreyfuss.

  By 1960, The Whitney Library of Design published Measure of Man, by Dreyfuss, an ergonomic data guide compiled from military records by the Dreyfuss office. It featured Joe and Josephine and popularized the idea of fitting products to human scale. The term "ergonomics" was coined in the early 1950s to describe the new profession focused on the study of human-equipment interaction.

    * 球形 Hoover "Model 82 Constellation" 真空吸塵器 (1954) ,無輪漂浮式。
  Although Hoover discharged Dreyfuss in 1954, in 1955 they introduced their Model 82 Constellation vacuum cleaner designed by him, a spherical shape that glided on an air cushion of its own exhaust.

55hoovervacuum


  In 1956 the wall-mounted telephone was re-introduced by Bell Telephone. Designed by Henry Dreyfuss Associates (HDA), it was intended as a companion to the desktop model "500." In 1958 Bell introduced his design for the first push-button telephone sets. And in 1959 Bell introduced the "Princess" phone, with hand/mouthpiece spanning the dial, and fitting compactly on the base. Its petite size was designed by HDA to appeal to teen-age girls.

    * the "Princess" telephone (1959)

1959_princess_telephone


    * the "Trimline" 桌上型電話 (1965)。設定今日按鍵式話機的標準,額外的兩個按鍵,就設定為為未來的通訊服務。

b1968_trimline_telephone


  HDA designed a number of safety razors. The Pal stainless steel razor for American Safety Razor (1961), the Gem razor, for ASR Products Company (1965), and the Flicker, a women's rotary manual safety razor, for the American Safety Razor Company (1972).

  In 1963 the Polaroid Land Company introduced its Model 100, the first to allow removal of photo to develop while shooting the next, designed by HDA. They also designed the General Motors Futurama for the 1964 World's Fair in New York, the most popular exhibit.

  In 1965 The Industrial Design Society of America (IDSA) was formed by the merger of IDI, ASID and IDEA, becoming the single voice of industrial design in the US. Henry Dreyfuss was its first President. That same year, the "Trimline" telephone was introduced. Designed by Donald M. Genaro of HDA in collaboration with Western Electric staff, it combined receiver, transmitter and dial into a single element nested into a compact base

  Dreyfuss 正式在1967年重組他的設計室為Henry Dreyfuss Associates,聯合Donald M. Genaro, James M. Conner, Niels Diffrient為夥伴。

在1969年他退休回加州的Pasadena, CA 。

  Representing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1971, he chaired the first meeting of the International Organization of Standards Technical Committee (ISO/TC) in Berlin which set international standards for 145 signs and symbols. In 1972, McGraw-Hill published his Symbol Sourcebook: An Authoritative Guide to International Graphic Symbols.

首創人體工程學
  德雷夫斯是人因工程學的奠基者和創始人。
  德雷夫斯的一個強烈信念是設計必須符合人體的基本要求,他認為適應於人的機器才是最有效率的機器。因而他開始發展人因工程學的數據。他多年潛心研究有關人體的數據以及人體的比例及功能,1955年出版了《為人的設計》( Designing for People)一書,書中收集了大量的人體工程學資料,1961年他出版了著作《人體計測》(the Measure of Man)(中譯見六合出版社)一書,從而為設計界奠定了人體工程學這門學科,德雷夫斯成為最早把人因工程學系統運用在設計過程中的設計家,對於這門學科的進一步發展有著積極的推動作用。

延伸閱讀:http://i.f.alexander.users.btopenworld.com/reviews/dreyfuss.htm

  德雷夫斯的人因工程學研究成果,體現在1955年以來他為約翰·迪爾公司開發的一系列農用機械中,這些設計環繞著以建立舒適的、以人因工程學計算為基礎的駕駛工作條件這一中心,外形簡練、與人相關的零件設計合乎人體的基本適應要求,這是工業設計的一個非常重要的進步與發展。

  1957年出版一本書:《工業設計- 一種圖畫式的會計學 1926-1957》
  1965年Dreyfuss擔任美國工業設計協會 (IDSA)的第一任主席(President)。

逝世Death

  在1972年10月5日, 在加州南帕莎蒂娜(South Pasadena)的家中,Dreyfuss和他的太太 Doris Marks自殺, 她已是癌症末期。他們被發現在車上, 死於自我處置的一氧化碳中毒。在早些年,Marks已被診斷出肝癌。
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Dreyfuss
http://www.china9y.com/theory/theory032060.htm
http://new.idsa.org/webmodules/articles/anmviewer.asp?a=247&z=60
http://www.3d3d.cn/article/rwjs/2007-07-25/1078.html

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