200909100617英語測驗評量

 

    英語測驗評量

    疑難問題

    _____1.I'm taking acting (1) class (2) classes to be more confident on stage.

    _____2.Nelly was kicked out of (1) dance class (2) the dance class (3) dance classes because she never practiced.

    _____3.I have (1) math and Chinese (2) math and Chinese classes this morning.

    _____4.May goes to (1) math class (2) a math class (3) math classes (4) class on Mondays.

    _____5.In (1) geography class (2) the geography class, we learned capitals of all countries.

    _____6.(1)The Chinese (2) Chinese people (3) Chinese believe red is a lucky color.

    _____7.He (1) has been dead (2) has died since last night.

    _____8.Pour (1) two thirds (2) two-thirds (3) two-third cup of water in the mixture.

    _____9.The music makes me (1) happy (2) feel happy.

    _____10.(1)With (2) Because of Dr. Li’s help, I got well soon.

    談命題試題分析與結果詮釋大綱

  1. 測驗評量的基本概念
    1. 根據測驗目的分類:
      1. 成就測驗(achievement test):最常使用於平日教學中,測驗內容與教學內容、目標高度相關,目的在評量學生經由學習後是否獲得某一特定知識。
      2. 學力測驗(proficiency test):相較於achievement test測驗學生對某一教學單元的精熟程度,proficiency test主要是測試整體語言的表現水準,並不侷限於任何單一的語言技巧,或任何單一版本教科書內容。像是大家熟知的TOEFL GRE等考試。
    1. 根據學習過程分類:
      1. 安置測驗(placement test):為評估學生應被安置於什麼地方而進行的前測,通常用於學年、學期開始前為了解學生實際掌握英語知識和具備能力的程度,以便定訂出符點學生起點行為的教學計畫,或是根據安置測驗將學生予以分組教學,每當學生顯示了進步,便可以再予以施測安置。
      2. 形成性測驗(progress test):為大家所熟知英文翻譯應是formative test, 常用於一般教學過程中,目的在獲取回饋資訊了解學生的學習情況。據此結果,教師可加強學生學習較弱部份進行compensatory activities or exercises, 藉此學生可填補鞏固所學知識。此外,形成性評量通常不算成績,只作為老師教學、學生學習的檢視工具,而非評分依據。
      3. 總結性測驗(final test):為大家所熟知英文翻譯應是summative test, 此類測驗通常可用來描述已發生在學生內部的學習,一般用於單元、學期、學年結束時,目的在檢查學生經過一段學習後是否達成學習目標。形成性評量和總結性評量都只是為check學生是否真正有學進去,老師是否有達成教學目標,而非用來排名次或分出勝負。
    1. 根據測驗規模分類:
      1. 標準化測驗(standardized test):以測驗原理為依規,按照科學方式編制,嚴格控管測試誤差的一種考試。也就是要做到試卷編制、施測過程、評判分數、分數解釋以及題庫建置標準化。現今的TOEFEGRE、全民英檢等大規模商業化考試,都算是標準化測試。學校最常使用的標準化測驗,應該是標準化性向測驗。
      2. 課堂測驗(classroom test):課堂測驗的規模及嚴謹程度相較起標準化測驗可說是小屋見大屋了。不過由於是針對學生的情況及根據所學的教材所編製的試卷,學生比較有方向準備,對學習有立即的回饋效果。
    1. 根據評估標準分類:
      1. 常模參照測驗(norm-referenced test):此種驗的解釋方法是告訴受試者在接受同一測驗的較大群體中是站在什麼地位。主要目的是讓某考生知道本身在所屬考試群體中處於那個水準。在教學上僅只能反映與同學在學習成效上的優劣排名,並無法顯示受試者達成了學習目標。常模參照測驗常用於地區性或全國性評估的標準測驗上,例如基本學力測驗。
      2. 標準參照測驗(criterion-referenced test):有些測驗事先設定如果你的分數超過某一數值便算通過,這便是標準參照測驗,像是全民英檢。在教學上主要目的是要了解學生能否達到某一能力水準,像是能否聽懂英語國家人士關於日常生活、社交生活的講演、對談;能否在一小時內寫出250個字等等。標準參照測驗常被使用在proficiency test 或教師用在成績報告單的評分上。
    1. 根據評分方式分類:
      1. 主觀測驗(subjective test):指的是評分時,需評分者運用主觀經驗、洞察力,甚至是世界觀來作出判斷,給予評分。像是作文、問答申論題均屬此類。雖說主觀的評分方式常常不夠客觀,影響試卷信度,但因可直接測出學生實際運用語言的能力,故效度相對提高。
      2. 客觀測驗(objective test):指的是評分時不需要或幾乎不需要評分者進行主觀判斷,非專業人士或電腦就可以進行判讀進而評分。對就是對,錯就是錯分數公正客觀,試卷的信度較高。選擇是就是經典題型。
    1. 根據學習過程分類:
      1. 安置測驗(placement test):為評估學生應被安置於什麼地方而進行的前測,通常用於學年、學期開始前為了解學生實際掌握英語知識和具備能力的程度,以便定訂出符點學生起點行為的教學計畫,或是根據安置測驗將學生予以分組教學,每當學生顯示了進步,便可以再予以施測安置。
      2. 形成性測驗(progress test):為大家所熟知英文翻譯應是formative test, 常用於一般教學過程中,目的在獲取回饋資訊了解學生的學習情況。據此結果,教師可加強學生學習較弱部份進行compensatory activities or exercises, 藉此學生可填補鞏固所學知識。此外,形成性評量通常不算成績,只作為老師教學、學生學習的檢視工具,而非評分依據。
      3. 總結性測驗(final test):為大家所熟知英文翻譯應是summative test, 此類測驗通常可用來描述已發生在學生內部的學習,一般用於單元、學期、學年結束時,目的在檢查學生經過一段學習後是否達成學習目標。形成性評量和總結性評量都只是為check學生是否真正有學進去,老師是否有達成教學目標,而非用來排名次或分出勝負。
    1. 根據測驗規模分類:
      1. 標準化測驗(standardized test):以測驗原理為依規,按照科學方式編制,嚴格控管測試誤差的一種考試。也就是要做到試卷編制、施測過程、評判分數、分數解釋以及題庫建置標準化。現今的TOEFEGRE、全民英檢等大規模商業化考試,都算是標準化測試。學校最常使用的標準化測驗,應該是標準化性向測驗。
      2. 課堂測驗(classroom test):課堂測驗的規模及嚴謹程度相較起標準化測驗可說是小屋見大屋了。不過由於是針對學生的情況及根據所學的教材所編製的試卷,學生比較有方向準備,對學習有立即的回饋效果。
    1. 根據評估標準分類:
      1. 常模參照測驗(norm-referenced test):此種驗的解釋方法是告訴受試者在接受同一測驗的較大群體中是站在什麼地位。主要目的是讓某考生知道本身在所屬考試群體中處於那個水準。在教學上僅只能反映與同學在學習成效上的優劣排名,並無法顯示受試者達成了學習目標。常模參照測驗常用於地區性或全國性評估的標準測驗上,例如基本學力測驗。
      2. 標準參照測驗(criterion-referenced test):有些測驗事先設定如果你的分數超過某一數值便算通過,這便是標準參照測驗,像是全民英檢。在教學上主要目的是要了解學生能否達到某一能力水準,像是能否聽懂英語國家人士關於日常生活、社交生活的講演、對談;能否在一小時內寫出250個字等等。標準參照測驗常被使用在proficiency test 或教師用在成績報告單的評分上。
    1. 根據評分方式分類:
      1. 主觀測驗(subjective test):指的是評分時,需評分者運用主觀經驗、洞察力,甚至是世界觀來作出判斷,給予評分。像是作文、問答申論題均屬此類。雖說主觀的評分方式常常不夠客觀,影響試卷信度,但因可直接測出學生實際運用語言的能力,故效度相對提高。
      2. 客觀測驗(objective test):指的是評分時不需要或幾乎不需要評分者進行主觀判斷,非專業人士或電腦就可以進行判讀進而評分。對就是對,錯就是錯分數公正客觀,試卷的信度較高。選擇是就是經典題型。
    • 考試(Test): 指的是測量一個人在某一特定領域的知識或能力之工具
    • 測驗(Testing):強調過程‚包括測驗的編製、施測、測驗分數解釋等
    • 評量(Assessment):意義與測驗大同小異;只是評量對蒐集的資料進行價值判斷(evaluation)測驗比較強調客觀的蒐集與分析資料
    • 回沖效應 (Backwash)  : 就是考試領導教學效應,是指考試對學生學習及教師教學的影響。測驗對教學的影響
    • 試題偏重在基礎語言成份的評量,而非語言應用能力的鑑定,且內容與學生實際生活關連性低,以致於未能有效地評鑑學生實際的語言能力,並造成考試領導教學的負面回沖效應(backwash effects)。
    • 課堂測驗 (Class Progress Test)
  2. 藉由編寫試題者以正向積極的態度看待教學與考試的關係並能依據教學目標、能力指標來命題,應可將回沖作用的負面作用減至最低。

    減低測騐backwash effect 的方法是在配分上作調整

     

    國二生要抽測的TASA(Taiwan Assessment of Student Achievement http://tasa.naer.edu.tw/release/index.)

    出題時一定要注意的是給學生考試的目的是什麼,

    是要當作自己改進教學的參考、

    當作幫助學生復習的工具、

    當作學生提升學習效率的手段、

    當作分出學生程度高下的利器(當然這是很cruel)

    亦或是當作專門機構人員的研究數據,

    各種目的的出題方式、偏重的方向皆不相同,所以了解施測目的是命題人員的第一考量。

    第一線英語教學工作者最常使用的小考(quizz), 是應該被謹慎使用的。原因有三:If the teacher does decide to give quizzes, she should be wary of three endencies that may negatively affect learning. The first is to place such reliance on the threat of a quiz to motivate the students that she neglects to plan adequately for her own teaching. Quizzes may be used to give an extra incentive, but proper motivation cannot be maintained on the basis of quizzes alone.Second, the teacher should take care not to ask questions of the same difficluty level on a quizz that she would on an examination. The purpose is to check initial comprehension of any segment of material, not final mastery Third, the teacher should not overtest. If she decides to give quizzes, she should not give one every day, at least not for a grade. Most of the time in class should be devoted to teaching-learning situations, not testing.(Kennith Chastain,1988)

    “Quizz”實在是讓老師又愛又恨,適時適切的用的確可以提學生的學習成效,但用的過量過度會反客為主影響教學的品質進度及學生學習的興趣。怎樣才是一個比較好的原則呢?怎樣可以讓測驗的反撥作用是正向的呢? 我想別讓小考時間佔用超過十分之一的上課時間會好一些吧!而且更高明的小考方式是能夠利用上課活動引起學生get involved in your classroom activity, 學生會想用敢用會用你所教的字詞句,不就自然達到測驗的目的了嗎?

    以上兩種測驗的區別如下:

    Whereas an achievement test look back on what should have been learned, the proficiency test looks forward, defining a student’s language proficiency with reference to a particlular task which he or she will be required to perform.

    A good achievement test should reflect the particular approach to lrarning and teaching that has previously been adopted.

    The proficiecy test is concerned simply with measuring a student’s control of the language in the light of what he or she will be expected to do with it in the future performance of a particular task.(J.B.Heaton,1990)

    再引用去年68日在高雄辦的精進試題評析能力工作坊張武昌教授提供的資料(周中天,國中小英語命題原則與精神),更能清楚地看出這兩者的不同:

     

    成就測驗

    能力測驗

    目的

    檢視學習成就、診斷學習缺失,以利補救。

    評量學生能力、瞭解學生程度

    重點目標

    重視人人達成學習目標

    重視鑑別度、排名

    命題範圍

    以特定教學內容為命題範圍

    命題範圍不受限制

    測驗層次

    知識、理解、基本運用為主

    綜合運用為主

    測驗題型

    單項式題目為主(單字、片語、文法、造句、翻譯)

    整合式題目為主(cloze、閱讀測驗、作文)

    與教學關係

    配合教學目標與進度

    與教學無明確相關

    學生準備

    有明確的準備內容

    無法在短期準備

    3、診斷性測驗(diagnostic test):此種測驗主要目的是要發掘學生在語言的那一方面出了問題。雖然diagnostic test一詞很廣泛地被使用,但很少有測驗是單獨為此目的而編製的。因為achievement testproficiency test常帶有 診斷的色彩。至於測驗內容大致可包括:phoneme descrimination tests, grammar and usage tests or certain controlled writing tests等等。

    值得一提的是要測試不同的語言能力可採合適的評量方式,不需自我設限,非得客觀不可。引用下列文字供大家參考:Objective tests need not by confined to any one particular skill or element. In one or two well-known tests in the past, attempts have even been made to measure writing ability by a series of objective test items. However, certain skills and areas of language may be tested far more effecrively by one method than by another.Reading and vocabulary, for example, often lend themselves to objective methods of assessment. Clearly, the ability requiring the student to write can only be satisfcatorily tested by a subjective examination requiring the student to perform a writing task similar to that required in real life. (J.B.Heaton,1990)

     

    以上內容來自 <http://nirc.ntct.edu.tw/mentoring/data/user/english123/files/200805151101401.doc>

     

    3、診斷性測驗(diagnostic test):此種測驗主要目的是要發掘學生在語言的那一方面出了問題。雖然diagnostic test一詞很廣泛地被使用,但很少有測驗是單獨為此目的而編製的。因為achievement testproficiency test常帶有 診斷的色彩。至於測驗內容大致可包括:phoneme descrimination tests, grammar and usage tests or certain controlled writing tests等等。

    值得一提的是要測試不同的語言能力可採合適的評量方式,不需自我設限,非得客觀不可。引用下列文字供大家參考:Objective tests need not by confined to any one particular skill or element. In one or two well-known tests in the past, attempts have even been made to measure writing ability by a series of objective test items. However, certain skills and areas of language may be tested far more effecrively by one method than by another.Reading and vocabulary, for example, often lend themselves to objective methods of assessment. Clearly, the ability requiring the student to write can only be satisfcatorily tested by a subjective examination requiring the student to perform a writing task similar to that required in real life. (J.B.Heaton,1990)

  3. 效標參照測驗 (Criterion-referenced Test)
  4. 常模參照測驗 (Norm-referenced Test)
  5. 要素

  6. 效度(Validity):表面效度、內容效度、建構效度 (測驗是否正確)
  7. 信度(Reliability):測驗內部一致性、評分一致性(測驗是否精準)
  8. 適用可行性(Practicability):經費、時間、施測行政、評分
  9. 確定效度的方法

  10. 利用雙向細目表
  11. 諮詢專家同仁
  12. 施行預測
  13. 尋求反饋
  14. 參考文獻
  15. Ability/trait parameter – 能力值

    Achievement test – 成就測驗

    Alternate form reliability – 複本信度

    Analytic scoring – 分項式評分

    Anchor item – 定錨試題

    ANOVA (analysis of variance) – 變異數分析

    Aptitude test – 性向測驗

    Assessment – 評量

    Assessor – 評分老師

    Backwash effect –回沖效應

    Calibration – 試題難易校準

    Central tendency – 集中趨勢

    Classical test theory – 古典測驗理論

    Composite score – 總分

    Computer-adaptive test – 電腦適性測驗

    Computer-based test --電腦化測驗

    Concurrent validity – 同期效度

    Confidence interval – 信賴區間

    Construct validity – 構念效度

    Content validity – 內容效度

    Correlation – 相關性

    Correlation coefficient – 相關係數

    Criterion-referenced test – 標準參照測驗,如「全民英檢」,各級明訂能力指標

    Criterion-related validity – 效標關聯效度

    Descriptive statistics – 描述統計

    Descriptors – 能力說明

    Diagnostic test – 診斷性測驗

    Difficulty – 難易度

    Difficulty index --難易度指數

    Discrimination – 鑑別度

    Discrimination index --鑑別度指數

    Distractors – 誘答選項

    Equating – 等化

    Equivalent forms – 平行試卷

    Face validity – 表面效度

    Factor – 變數

    Factor analysis – 因素分析

    Fairness – 公平性

    General proficiency test-- 一般能力測驗

    High-stakes test – 正式測驗

    Holistic scoring – 整體式評分

    Inferential statistics – 推論統計

    Integrated test – 整合型測驗

    Intelligence test – 智力測驗

    Interlocutor – 面談主試者

    Internal consistency – 內部一致性

    Inter-rater reliability – 評分者之間信度

    Intra-rater agreement --評分者本身信度

    Item – 試題

    Item analysis --試題分析

    Item bank (pool) – 題庫

    Item-response theory (IRT) – 試題反應理論

    Level of significance – 顯著水準(一般定於α.05)

    Mean score – 平均數

    Median – 中數

    Mode – 眾數

    Negatively skewed – 負偏態(非常態分布,考生表現較預期佳)

    Norm-referenced test – 常模參照測驗,如托福測驗

    Normal distribution – 常態分布

    Null hypothesis – (虛無假設)

    Percentile – 百分位數

    Percentile rank – 百分等級

    Performance conditions – 作答條件(如作答時間、準備時間等)

    Placement test – 編班測驗

    Point-biserial correlation – 點二系列相關 (適用於試題為二分變相的試題分析)

    Population – 母群體

    Positively skewed –正偏態 (非常態分布,考生表現較預期差)

    Predictive validity – 預測效度

    Pretest – 預試

    Random sampling – 隨機取樣

    Rating scale – 評分量表()

    Raw score – 粗分

    Reliability – 信度

    Regression – 迴歸

    Rubrics – 作答說明

    Sample – 樣本

    Score range – 分數範圍

    Scoring formula – 計分公式

    Significant difference – 顯著差異

    Specifications – 測驗內容

    Split-halves reliability – 折半信度 (一般稱Cronbach’sα係數)

    Standard score – 標準分數

    Standardisation -- 標準化

    Standardized test – 標準化測驗

    Standard deviation (S.D.) -- 標準差

    Standard error of measurement – 標準誤

    Stem – 題幹

    Stratified sampling – 分層取樣

    Subscore – 分項分數

    t-test – t檢定

    Test development – 測驗發展

    Test-retest reliability – 重測信度

    Test security – 測驗安全性

    Test-taker – 考生

    Test (score) user – 測驗採用者

    Testing of statistical hypothesis – 統計假設檢定

    True score – 真分數

    Validity – 效度

    Variance – 變異數

    Washback effect --回沖效應

    確定信度的方法

  16. 測驗信度(統計概念)
    • 重測(同樣測驗不同時間重複施測兩次)
    • 複本信度(題目不同但內容相似)
    • 折半信度(奇偶數試題得分相關)
    • KR20, KR21, Cronbach a
  17. 評分者信度
    • 積差相關等級相關
  18. 命題流程

  19. 決定評量目標及內容(參閱課程綱要及教材)
  20. 設計比較變化試題方式
  21. 設計雙向細目表
  22. 編制測驗題目及草稿
  23. 校正、修訂、確定測驗題目
  24. 使用「命題檢核表」最後檢查試題是否符合命題原則與格式規定
  25. 題型種類

  26. 閱讀
  27. 寫作
  28. 聽力
  29. 口說
  30. 命題原則--詞彙與慣用語

  31. 命題所用之詞以國中高中常用之字詞為原則
  32. 所測詞彙的詞類應適當的分配(3-3-2-24-3-2-1)
  33. 題幹的上下文意明確,提供充分的解題線索
  34. 題幹長度適中(15-20字或不超過一行為原則)
  35. 正答與其它選項之長短及難易度接近(詞類、音節數拼字)
  36. 選項應具有適度的誘答力
  37. 詞彙種類active (speaking and writing) and passive (listening and reading)
  38. 如何評估試卷品質
  39. 測驗的效度(validity)
  40. 在本書中被提及效度大致有內容效度(content valid)、效標關聯效度(criterion-related validity)、預測效度(predictive validity)、共時效度(concurrent validity)。只舉其中內容效度加以說明,因為它跟一般教師的命題最息息相關。

    其所指的是考試題目是否涵蓋了考試範圍內的重要部份,也就是能測出所要評量的內容,舉個很簡單的例子:如果我們要測驗的是學生是否學會了動詞時態的用法,但在試題中大部份的題目卻要學生做名詞單複數的變化,或形容詞最高級比較級的轉換,那這份試題的效度必然很低。

    若要提高試題的測試效度,根據本書作者所引述的步驟簡述如下:(1)根據教學大綱分別列出教材內容的各項重點(2)內容重點和學習結果的分數比例可根據教學時數或專家意見來決定(3)編制命題雙項細目表(4)依照雙向細目表的具體規定來編擬試題。

    上個月2122日兩天在三峽的研習,劉教授亦提及所謂的雙向細目表的編寫大略原則,提供各位作參考:

    Making a two-way specification table: Example

     

      Objectives

      Materials

    Knowledge

    Comprehension

    Application

    Analysis

    Synthesis

    Evaluation

    Total

    %

    Words/phrases/grammar

    10

    4

    1

    2

    0

    0

    18

    40

    Cloze

    1

    4

    2

    1

    0

    0

    7

    15.5

    Reading comprehen-

    sion

    4

    12

    1

    1

    1

    1

    20

    44.4

    Total

    15

    20

    4

    4

    1

    1

    45

    100

    %

    33.3

    44.4

    8.8

    8.8

    2.2

    2.2

     

     

    如能在出題之前,做一份雙向細目,將能很很清楚的確定我們所出的考題均有cover到認知領域教學目標,確認了我們要考學生的些能力,那麼效度就有了初步的保障了。至於什麼樣的題目算是考knowledge ,什麼樣的題目算是考application?劉教授也給了一些範例(如下表),請自行參考。

    What is the cognitive domain?

     

    Category

    Example and Key Words

    Knowledge: Recall data or information.

    Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.

    Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.

    Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.

    Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.

    Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives Examples, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.

    Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.

    Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.

    Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.

    Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. 

    Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.

    Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.

    Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

    Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.

    Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.

    Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

    Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.

    Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.

    其實還可以做一種以課程內容課數所涵蓋的文法句型等重點或能力指標編列雙向細目表,在實務篇時在與大家分享。

    ()測驗的信度(reliability):是指測驗結果的穩定性和一致性,也就是測驗要能為同一學生提供前後一致的測驗結果。同樣的考試對象,以同等考試條件,用同等的施測時間,實施測試兩次或兩次以上,把各次成績加以比較,若前後結果相差很多,則說明了這個test的信度低。要考驗信度可採取的一種方法是:你所要評量的每一文法觀念、技巧、事實都至少要有兩個驗項目;就好像是一個測驗中有兩個測驗一樣。如此一來在各所得的分數應該蠻一致的。

    ()試題的難度(item difficulty index):就是指試題的難易程度,以某一選擇題來說,全班30人有20人做對,則本題難度指數則為20÷300.67, 難度指最大為1最小是0,數值越大則代表難度越高,難度指數若高於0.67或低於0.33原則上應予以修改或刪除。整體而言,一份卷子的難度要有梯度,這樣既可激發程度好的學生做題的興趣,成就較低的學生也有得分的機會。一般來說,一份試卷的平均難度係數應控制在0.5左右,只有難易適中的考題才能客觀地反應學生的實際水準。

    ()試題的鑑別度(item discrimination):光只有難度還不足以判別題目的品質,難度只能反映出答對率,但可能出現低分組的同學答對,高分組同學卻答錯的情形,所以若能將鑑別度的係數作為是否保留該題的指標,更能確保試卷的信度了。鑑別度的公式為:D(HL)/N

    D為鑑別度指數;H為高分組答對該題人數;L為低分組答對該題人數;N為考生總人數。鑑別度指數越高試題區分篩選學生的作用就更強。鑑別度指數在0.200.39之間是OK的,若低於0.19就有需要修正了。0.40以上的題目就算好的了。

  41. 參考詞彙表
    • 大考中心公佈之高中英文參考詞彙表
    • 教育部公佈之九年一貫英語課程常用2000個字詞表(畫底線者為基本1200個字彙 )
    • 課本重點單字
  42. 定義詞彙範圍
    • 大學學測詞彙範圍約4000-5000個高中常用詞彙
    • 詞類有適當比例,共有10題,名詞3個、動詞3個、形容詞2個、副詞2(或是4321)
    • 大考中心高中英文參考詞彙表六級難度標準(每級1,080個詞彙):第二級3個、第三級3個、第四級4個。(第五及六級適合指定科目考試使用。)
  43. 題幹必須語意明確,並提供充份的解題線索
  44. 題幹提供線索的方法
    • 定義或同義詞
    • 常識
    • 推理或聯想
    • 提供因果關係
    • 主題、評論關係
  45. 題幹長度儘量在一行或20字以內
  46. 選項音節數及難易度接近
  47. 選項詞類相同
  48. 誘答之誘答力平均
  49. 詞彙題範例

  50. After the heavy rain, many parts of the city were _____.
  51. A. flooded B. washed C. drowned D. watered

  52. At last the climbers reached the s_____ of the mountain.
  53. We could see the place _____ she had the accident.
  54. A. which B. where C. whether D. what

  55. We s________ for many places but could not find traces of our dog.
  56. 詞彙題:拼寫用運詞彙

  57. 辦讀選用同義詞彙
  58. 辨讀運用適當詞彙
  59. 提供篇章語境評量字彙能力
  60. In a 1democratic society suspected persons are presumed innocent until proven guilty. The 2establishment of guilt is often a difficult task. One consideration is whether or not there remains a 3reasonable doubt that the suspected persons committed the acts in questions. Another consideration is whether or not the acts were committed 4deliberately.

    4. A. both B. noticeably C. intentionally

    D. absolutely

    命題原則克漏字

  61. 包含綜合測驗及文意選填
  62. 主要在測驗考生對選文之文意、句構及章法的全面了解,即實詞虛詞、慣用語及轉折詞等在篇章結構中的用法
  63. 選文應多元,涵蓋不同之主題及題材
  64. 內容符合學生的生活體驗及認知能力
  65. 內容具教育性、知識性及趣味性
  66. 語言難易適中
  67. 題目數配合長度15-201
  68. 上下文提供充分的解題線索
  69. 避免以首尾句命題
  70. 測試的內容項目:章法、詞彙、語意、語法要平均分配
  71. 選項避免拼字、用詞或文法錯誤以及爭議性誘答
  72. 選項詞類一致,避免根據文法常識即可作答
  73. 誘答之誘答力要平均
  74. 克漏字題組範例

     

  75. She is very f____e from sickness.
  76. He has been very feeble since his illness.
  77. A. unwell B. thin C. foolish D. weak

  78. The old woman was too _______ to push open the heavy door.
     A. feeble  B. sincere  C. deaf  D. harsh
  79. 第一題最節省版面比較容易命題

    第二題直接呈現詞彙的語境

    第三題答題可能較費時

  80. Hundreds of scientists around the world are researching how birds learn to speak. They (1) that most birds learn new sound when they are young. The learning time for (2) sparrows is the first two-and-a-half months after they are hatched. Newly hatched birds are quiet, (3) they hear a rich variety of sounds from the adult birds around them. Soon they start to practice those songs at once, (4) their songs crystallize and are set in their memory for life. If the birds make a “mistake” (5) , they might start a new dialect. (about 100 words)
  81. 1. (A) found (B) have found (C) are finding

    (D) had found

    2. (A) whitely-crowned (B) crowned whitely

    (C) white-crowned (D) crowned white

    3. (A) therefore (B) and (C) however (D) but

    4. (A) when (B) since (C) until (D) before

    5. (A) while practicing (B) upon practicing

    (C) for practice (D) without practice

     

    選文60-70但是題組卻有5

     

    Yesterday while my family were watching TV, we felt the house 43 . It was a quake. All of us 44 , and Daddy told us to 45 the house. When it finally stopped, we came back to the house and 46 the TV. We were so sad to learn that hundreds of people 47 . It was a terrible experience.

     


    43. (A) shaked選項錯誤 (B) shook (C) shaken (D) shaking  沒有正答, was shaking?


    44. (A) are scared (B) were scared (C) scared (D) scaring


    45. (A) run out of (B) ran out of (C) running out (D) run out


    46. (A) turn on (B) turned off (C) turned on (D) turn off


    47. (A) hurts (B) were hurt (C) get hurt (D) got hurted  選項錯誤

    選文第一句開頭就是題目不恰當

    選文約60但是題組只有2

    (1) the food “bagel”? In fact, a bagel is becoming more and more popular now. People can buy it at the snack bars, fast-food restaurants, and even Starbucks. But do you know its story? The earliest story about bagels (2) in 1610. It says women could get bagels when they had a baby.

    命題原則閱讀測驗

  82. 選文應多元,涵蓋不同之主題及題材
  83. 選文內容及語言難易適中
  84. 選文內容符合學生的生活體驗及認知能力
  85. 選文應具教育性、知識性及趣味性
  86. 問題數目配合選文長度60字一題
  87. 避免學生不用閱讀即可作答
  88. 評量學生對選文的理解、引申及推理能力
  89. 兼顧整體(global)理解及(local)理解
  90. 避免使用與選文完全相同之字詞及句型
  91. 平均涵蓋選文的重要內容
  92. 各選項之長短及難易度相當
  93. 各選項具有適度的誘答力
  94. 閱讀測驗範例

    One day Nasreddin borrowed a big pot from his neighbor Ali. The next day he returned the pot with a small pot inside. “That’s not mine,” said Ali. “Yes, it is,” said Nasreddin. “While your pot was staying with me, it had a baby.”

    One week later Nasreddin asked Ali to lend him the pot again. Ali gladly agreed and waited to see if Nasreddin would again give him back two pots. One week passed. Then another. In the end, Ali lost patience and went to demand his pot. “I’m sorry, your pot has died,” said Nasreddin. “Died!” said Ali. “How can a pot die?” “Well, you believed me when I told you that your pot had a baby, didn’t you?” (89SAET) (140 words)

  95. 41-43題組,篇章文類屬敘事,其實不難理解,但43題鑑別度偏低,試題題意容易誤導,建議修改。
  96. 43. It can be inferred that Ali had ____ at the end of the story. (A) neither of the pots (B) the big pot (C) the small pot (D) both pots

  97. 測驗命題原則與範例
  98. 試題分析指標
  99. 試題難度(答對率)
    • 試題難度指數(答對率P)即所有參加考試者答對試題的比率,難度指數= 答對人數 / 受測總人數  
    • 難度指數(P)範圍
      • 個別試題:0.3~0.7
      • 整體試題:平均0.5左右
  100. 試題鑑別度
    • 試題鑑別度指數(D)即試題分辨參加考試者能力高低的程度,鑑別度指數 = 高分組答對率減去低分組答對率
    • 試題鑑別指數(D)的評鑑標準
      • 0.40 以上 極佳的試題
      • 0.30-0.39 尚可的試題,可能需要稍加改進
      • 0.20-0.29 不佳的試題,必須加以改進或刪除
      • 0.19 以下 極差的試題,應修改或刪除
  101. 試題誘答力
    • 誘答力評鑑原則:
      • 至少有一位以上低分組受試者選擇任何一個不正確選項。
      • 選擇不正確選項的低分組受試者應比高分組多。
  102. 試題分析

  103. 試題分析解釋步驟如下:
    • 先看試題鑑別指數及難易度指數。
    • 如果一題試題難易度指數高,即多數人答對此題,試題鑑別度指數可能不高,無法鑑別能力高低,但是一份試卷也需要兩三題這樣的題目,讓能力差的學生不至於成績掛零,所以這樣的試題可考慮安置於試卷的最前面
    • 再看高分組及低分組選答情形及選項是否恰當。如果選項誘答錯誤,即引誘高分組的學生選答,宜考慮修改試題選項。有些選項無人選答也應該修改。
  104. 分數相關名詞

  105. 平均數(Mean)    
  106. 中位數(Median)   
  107. 眾數(Mode)       
  108. 全距(Range)
  109. 標準差(Standard Deviation)
  110. 原始分數 (Raw Score)
  111. 標準分數 (Standardized Score)
    • 百分等級 (Percentile Rank)
    • z score
    • T score
  112.  

  113. 分數解釋
  114. 演練及討論
  115. If I were rich, I ____ work. (A) shan't (B) won't (C) wouldn't (D) didn't.
  116. 正答為(C)
  117. 答對率(難度)=.45
  118. 鑑別度=.5
  119. 高分選答人數  低分選答人數
  120. 1 4
  121. 2 5
  122. 14 4
  123. 3 7
  124. Mr. Watson wants to meet a friend in Singapore this year. He ____ him for ten years. (A) knew (B) had known (C) knows (D) has known.
  125. 正答為(D)
  126. 答對率(難度)=.325
  127. 鑑別度=.15
  128. 高分選答人數  低分選答人數
  129. 7 3
  130. 4 3
  131. 1 9
  132. 8 5
  133. We bought our plane tickets at a travel _____, not a counter. (A) salesman (B) dealer (C) tourist (D) agency.
  134. 正答為(D)
  135. 答對率(難度)=.625
  136. 鑑別度=.05
  137. 高分選答人數  低分選答人數
  138. 0 2
  139. 0 3
  140. 13 12
  141. 10 7
  142. He complained that he ____ the same bad film the night before. (A) had seen (B) was seeing (C) has seen (D) would see.
  143. 正答為(A)
  144. 答對率(難度)=.55
  145. 鑑別度=.30
  146. 高分選答人數  低分選答人數
  147. 14 8
  148. 4 7
  149. 2 5
  150. 0 0
  151. Wasn't that your father over there? (A) Yes, he was (B) Yes, it was (C) Yes, was he (D) Yes, was it.
  152. 正答為(B)
  153. 答對率(難度)=.50
  154. 鑑別度=.30
  155. 高分選答人數  低分選答人數
  156. 7 13
  157. 13 7
  158. 0 0
  159. 0 0
  160. 國中英語科能力指標解讀與試題編製原則

    I. What kind of test do we give?

    Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives

    --cognitive domain

    認知

    --affective domain

    情意

    --psychomotor domain

    動作技能

    II. What is the cognitive domain?

    Category

    Example and Key Words

    Knowledge: Recall data or information.

    Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.

    Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.

    Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.

    Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one’s own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.

    Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives Examples, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.

    Category

    Example and Key Words

    Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.

    Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee’s vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.

    Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.

    Category

    Example and Key Words

    Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. 

    Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.

    Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.

    Category

    Example and Key Words

    Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

    Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.

    Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.

    Category

    Example and Key Words

    Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

    Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.

    Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.

    Making a two-way specification table

     

    Objectives

    Materials

    Knowledge

    Comprehension

    Application

    Analysis

    Synthesis

    Evaluation

    Total

    %

    Words/phrases/grammar

    10

    4

    1

    2

    0

    0

    18

    40

    Cloze

    1

    4

    2

    1

    0

    0

    7

    15.5

    Reading comprehension

    4

    12

    1

    1

    1

    1

    20

    44.4

    Total

    15

    20

    4

    4

    1

    1

    45

    100

    %

    33.3

    44.4

    8.8

    8.8

    2.2

    2.2

     

     

    IV. Test item characteristics

    --    discrimination (-1 £ D £ 1), the higher the D value, the better the test item

    鑑別度 = 高分組答對百分比 - 低分組答對百分比

    --    difficulty (0 £ P £ 1), the higher the P value, the easier the test item

    難度表示通過人數百分比

    難度 = 答對人數 / 總人數

    --    distracter

    V. Types of assessment (CEF document, p. 183)

    1

    Achievement assessment

    Proficiency assessment

    2

    Norm-referencing (NR)

    Criterion-referencing (CR)

    3

    Mastery learning CR

    Continuum CR

    4

    Continuous assessment

    Fixed assessment points

    5

    Formative assessment

    Summative assessment

    6

    Direct assessment

    Indirect assessment

    7

    Performance assessment

    Knowledge assessment

    8

    Subjective assessment

    Objective assessment

    9

    Checklist rating

    Performance rating (rating on a scale)

    10

    Impression

    Guided judgment

    11

    Holistic assessment

    Analytic assessment

    12

    Series assessment

    Category assessment

    13

    Assessment by others

    Self-assessment

     

    VII. Common reference levels: self-assessment grid (CEF document, p. 26)

     

     

    A1

    A2

    B1

    understanding

    Listening

    I can recognize familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly

    I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). I can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.

    I can understand the main points of clear standard speech on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. I can understand the main point of many radio or TV programs on current affairs or topics of personal or professional interest when the delivery is relatively slow and clear.

     

    Reading

    I can understand familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues.

    I can read very short, simple texts. I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters.

    I can understand texts that consist mainly of high frequency everyday or job-related language. I can understand the description of events, feelings and wishes in personal letters.

    VII. Common reference levels

    Speaking

    Spoken interaction

    I can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what I'm trying to say. I can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics.

    I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I can't usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself.

    I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I can't usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself.

     

    Spoken production

    I can use simple phrases and sentences to describe where I live and people I know.

    I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job.

    I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job.

    VII. Common reference levels

    Writing

    Writing

    I can write a short, simple postcard, for example sending holiday greetings. I can fill in forms with personal details, for example entering my name, nationality and address on a hotel registration form.

    I can write short, simple notes and messages relating to matters in areas of immediate need. I can write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something.

    I can write simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. I can write personal letters describing experiences and impressions.

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 1

    A.    The Multiple choice test for vocabulary and grammar (Yu, 2005)

    1.     Principle one: Make sure that the test is evaluating the language ability you want to assess (試題的設計應該能夠測量到重要的學習成果)

    Poor examples:

    A: I dont know whether I can be a good teacher or not.

    B: _____

    (A) It doesn’t matter.            (B) You knew what I meant.

    (C) You should believe in yourself.    (D) Sure. I’ll be able to do it.

    Chinese people celebrate _____ by eating rice dumplings.

    (A) Moon Festival            (B) Chinese New Year

    (C) New Year’s Day            (D) Dragon Boat Festival

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 2

    2.    Principle two: Make sure of the consistency of vocabulary levels, the length and the number of the answer options for each question (每道試題的選項數目、難度及長度均應保持一致)

    Poor examples:

    _____ for the best and prepare for the worst.

    (A) Pick    (B) Treat    (C) Hope    (D) Care

    Which of the following is true?

    (A)    Mr. Green never eats junk food.

    (B)    Mr. Green seldom eats fruit and vegetables.

    (C)    Mr. Green sometimes goes jogging and sometimes goes swimming.

    (D)    Mr. and Mrs. Green never go for a walk together.

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 3

    3.    Principle three: Make sure that enough information/clues are given for each question without irrelevant information (題幹的敘述宜清楚表達題意,避免過短、過長、或無關之文字)

    Poor examples:

    I dont know if Tom _____ his friend from America.

    (A) will meet        (B) have met    (C) meets    (D) meet

    Andrew, my fathers brother, is my _____. He likes to help others and I learn a lot from him.

    (A) cousin        (B) uncle    (C) aunt        (D) grandpa

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 4

    4.    Principle four: Avoid splitting the question into two parts (題幹應保持完整)

    Poor example:

    There are a lot of

    (A) food       

    (B) child   

    (C) fish   

    (D) person

    in the market.

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 5

    5.    Principle five: Avoid repeating the same words in the answer options (選項中避免出現太多相同文字)

    Poor examples:

    Student A: Taipei 101 is the tallest building in Taiwan.

    Student B: _____

    (A)    You mean it is taller than the other building in Taiwan?

    (B)    You mean it is taller than any other buildings in Taiwan?

    (C)    You mean it is taller than all the other buildings in Taiwan?

    (D)    You mean it is the tallest than other buildings in Taiwan?

    What do western people think about sneezing?

    (A)    They think sneezing is bad for you.

    (B)    They think sneezing is a sign of good luck.

    (C)    They think sneezing lets evils come out of your body.

    (D)    They have many ideas about what sneezing means.

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 6

    6.    Principle six: Make sure that each distracter should be seemingly, to some degree, related to the question (所有誘答選項的敘述,應該具有與題幹敘述相關聯的似真性或合理性)

    Poor example:

    When I am hungry, any food looks _____ to me. (94-2)

    (A) common

    (B) delicious

    (C) honest

    (D) simple

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 7

    7.    Principle seven: Avoid using negative expressions for the questions; If needed, the negative word should be emphasized [CAPITALIZED, bold or underlined]. (題幹中儘量使用肯定的敘述,避免使用否定的敘述;如果必要使用否定敘述時,宜特別強調否定的字詞,如用大寫、粗體、或斜體)

    Poor example:

    Look at the picture. Which is not on the desk?

    (A) A dog.       

    (B) A book.

    (C) An eraser.

    (D) A lamp.

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 8

    8.    Principle eight: Make sure that there is only one best or correct answer to the question (試題確定只有一個清楚表達的正確答案或相對較佳的答案)

    Poor examples:

    I still couldnt pass the test _____ I studied hard.

    (A) because        (B) if        (C) after        (D) though

    I parked my bike here, but now I don’t know why it _____.

    (A) is found        (B) is gone    (C) gets broken    (D) gets lost

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 9

    9.    Principle nine: All answer options should be grammatically correct if chosen to filled in or respond to the context of the question (所有選項的答案均須符合題幹的句法結構;若為單字或片語測驗,則須詞性一致)

    Examples for discussion:

    Dont _____ to do your homework.

    (A) forget        (B) forgot    (C) forgetting    (D) to forget   

    If I finish my homework before eight oclock, my parents will let me _____ TV for one hour. (94-2)

    (A) watch        (B) watching   

    (C) to watch        (D) have watched

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 10

    10.    Principle ten: Avoid providing any unnecessary clues in favor of the desirable choices (題幹避免出現對正確選項不必要的暗示)

    Poor examples:

    (1)    Melisa is a _____ girl. She often smiles and is polite to everybody.

    (A) friendly    (B) honest    (C) active    (D) useful

    (2)    Bob: Do you know anyone from Class A?

    Jeff: No, I dont know _____ of them.

    (A) one        (B) some    (C) many    (D) any

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 10

    Susan is very excited. She will visit Taiwan next week and stay here for a month.

    Before she comes to Taiwan, she will learn some Taiwanese customs. She goes to the library to know more about Taiwan.

    In Taiwan, food is very different from in the US. People in Taiwan like to eat rice, so Susan needs to learn how to use chopsticks. She also needs to learn to say some easy Taiwanese greetings because they might be useful.

    (3)    Which of the following is NOT true?

    (A) Susan will stay in Taiwan for one month.

    (B) Susan is excited about visiting Taiwan.

    (C) Susan goes to the library in Taiwan to learn some more customs.

    (D) The food in Taiwan is different from in the US

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 10

    (4)    Susan doesn’t feel _____. She’s taking a rest in her bedroom.

    (A) well        (B) bad        (C) badly    (D) wrong

    (5)    ?We don’t just kill time by _____.

    (A) going to the movies

    (B) sounds terrible

    (C) read novels or magazines

    (D) to listen to great special music

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principle 11

    11.    Principle eleven: Avoid using “None of the above” or “All of the above” (錯誤選項竟亮避免使用「以上皆是」或「以上皆非」)

    Example for discussion:

    Who does Julian go to the park with?

    (A) Nick.

    (B) Julia.

    (C) Grandma.

    (D) All of them. (See reading comprehension: Section C)

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principles 12-14

    12.    Principle twelve: Randomize the positions of the answer options (以隨機方式排列正確選項的位置,避免多把答案置於CD的位置)

    13.    Principle thirteen: Control the difficulty of the test by elaborating either the question or the answer options (以變化題幹或改變選項來控制試題的難度)

    Example for discussion:

    Aaron has to check when his flight will _____ before he can ask his friend to pick him up at the airport.

    (A) reach        (B) arrive    (C) hurry    (D) pass

    14.    Principle fourteen: Each test item or each set of test items should be independent (每一試題或每一題組應各自獨立)

    VIII. 試題編製原則 Principles 15-17

    15.    Principle fifteen: Avoid the ordering effects or learning-by-route effect (avoid giving the test following the context of the textbook) (若為課內複習考題,應避免按教科書內容之順序來排列試題)

    16.    Principle sixteen: Make sure that the test is not the test of speed; avoid giving too many items in a limited period of testing time (試題不宜過多,以免成為速度測驗)

    17.    Any other related principles can be applied here, as long as it helps giving a valid, reliable test for language learning. However, the language used for the testing should be acceptable, informative, and communicative. (出題還應就測驗之目的,應用各方有利之原則,不可太墨守成規;但文字、修辭仍須講究)

    VIII. 試題編製原則

    More Examples for discussion:

    My classmate, Kevin, won first prize, and we _____.

    (A)    were proud of him

    (B)    are tired of him

    (C)    look forward to him

    (D)    get along with him

    The baseball game was really _____ last night. Both teams played so well that we didn’t know until the last minute which would win.

    (A) boring    (B) tiring    (C) exciting    (D) surprising

    A suggested check list for the multiple-choice test

    1.     是否符合測驗目標?

    ____ 2.     每道試題的選項數目及長度是否保持一致?

    ____ 3.     題幹的敘述是否清楚表達題意,是否過短、過長(10-20)

    ____ 4.     題幹中如果使用否定敘述,是否已用大寫字母強調否定字詞?

    ____ 5.     所有選項的答案是否符合題幹的句法結構;若為單字或片語測驗,則是否詞性一致?

    ____ 6.     答案是否明確、唯一,以免引起困擾與爭議?

    ____ 7.     題幹是否出現對正確選項不必要的暗示?

    ____ 8.     正答與誘答選項之難度是否接近?

    ____ 9.     誘答選項是否具誘答力?

    ____ 10.     某答案選項是否過多或過少?是否應再隨機排列?

    1.     是否符合測驗目標?

    ____ 2.     每道試題的選項數目及長度是否保持一致?

    ____ 3.     題幹的敘述是否清楚表達題意,是否過短、過長(10-20)

    ____ 4.     題幹中如果使用否定敘述,是否已用大寫字母強調否定字詞?

    ____ 5.     所有選項的答案是否符合題幹的句法結構;若為單字或片語測驗,則是否詞性一致?

    ____ 6.     答案是否明確、唯一,以免引起困擾與爭議?

    ____ 7.     題幹是否出現對正確選項不必要的暗示?

    ____ 8.     正答與誘答選項之難度是否接近?

    ____ 9.     誘答選項是否具誘答力?

    ____ 10.     某答案選項是否過多或過少?是否應再隨機排列?

    B. The Cloze test

    Miranda:     Tom, could you please stop 1 ?

    Tom:     What?

    Miranda:     You promised you 2 never smoke again! Did you forget 3 that?

    Tom:     Oh, not again. I never blamed you for the wrong thing.

    Miranda:     Tom! I’m worrying about your health!

    Tom:     I know. Fine. I will stop 4 the plants, Okay?

    1. (A) smoke    (B) to smoke    (C) smoking    (D) smoked

    2. (A) would    (B) should    (C) could    (D) mustn’t

    3. (A) say        (B) to say    (C) saying    (D) said

    4. (A) water    (B) to water    (C) watering    (D) watered

    (19~21)

    One day after dinner, Lois went to the park for a walk. On her way there, she was stopped by a man who 19 his fingernails. “Somebody took my bag,” he said, “and I have no money to get home.” He asked Lois if she could lend him some money. Lois was afraid and said “no” to him in a polite way. The man did not listen and kept asking for money. Lois did not change her mind. The man got angry and cried out, “You 24 a cold person. I hate you!” Lois felt so bad that she ran home quickly.

    Even today, Lois is still wondering whether what she 21 to that man was right or wrong.   

    fingernail 指甲wonder 疑惑

    19. (A) bites     (B) has bit     (C) was biting     (D) would bite

    20. (A) are     (B) were     (C) will be     (D) would be

    21. (A) says     (B) said         (C) will say     (D) would say

    (21-23) (95-1)

    Shu-fen is in her third year of junior high school. She has many tests every day, but she does not even want to look at her books. Shu-fen was not like this before. In fact, she 21 studying during her first two years of high school and always got high grades on tests. She was happy then.

    But these days Shu-fen always feels tired and bored. There 22 so many tests that Shu-fen cannot relax and do the things she likes. But what can she do? She can only tell herself that things 23 better after she starts senior high school.

    21. (A) enjoys     (B) enjoyed     (C) has enjoyed     (D) will enjoy

    22. (A) are     (B) were     (C) would be    (D) are going to be

    23. (A) get     (B) got         (C) have got     (D) will get

    A suggested check list for the Cloze test

    _____ 1.     是否符合測驗目標?

    _____ 2.     各選文是否有不同主題、風格、體裁?

    _____ 3.     選文是否兼顧教育性、知識性、趣味性,並符合考生之生活、學習經驗及認知能力?

    _____ 4.     選文難易是否適中?

    _____ 5.     是否已避免在選文的首句及末句安置空格?

    _____ 6.     每個空格是否有足夠之解題線索?

    _____ 7.     考題分配是否整體理解與局部理解並重,並兼顧語意及語法?

    _____ 8.     選項是否符合句法結構,拼字、用詞是否正確;若為單字或片語測驗,是否詞性一致?

    _____ 9.     各個誘答選項是否具誘答力?

    _____10.     答案是否明確、唯一,以免引起困擾與爭議?

    C. The reading comprehension test

    Dear A-May,

    I am in trouble now. My classmate sitting next to me likes to talk to me in class. But I want to listen to the teacher carefully. I really don’t know how to tell her about this. Please help me.

    A troubled student,

    A-Kwai

    Dear A-kwai,

    You must be a nice and kind girl! It is really hard to let you get rid of your trouble, but you still need to try it! I think your classmate wants to show thath she likes you very much, so you may tell her that you both need to have a quiet and hard-working environment to listen to your teacher in class. If she loves you, she will keep quiet right away; if she doesn’t, you should ask your teacher to change your seat.

    Truly yours,

    A-May

    1.     Who is a trouble to A-Kwai?

    (A) Her mother        (B) Her family       

    (C) Her boyfriend        (D) Her classmate

    2.    Why does A-Kwai write a letter to A-May for help?

    (A) Because she loves A-May very much.

    (B) Because A-May is her favorite singer.

    (C) Because she doesn’t know how to ask her classmate to be quiet.

    (D) Because her classmate is very quiet and hard-working.

    3.    Which is NOT the way that A-May tells A-Kwai to get rid of her trouble?

    (A) Asking the teacher to change her seat to another seat.

    (B) Telling her classmate to be much quieter.

    (C) Asking the teacher to give her classmate a spanking.

    (D) Trying to ask her classmate to be quiet.

    43~45

    Once, when I was a teenager, my father and I were standing in line to buy tickets to a baseball game. After a long wait, there was only one family left in front of us. I noticed this family because there were six children under the age of ten. You could tell they didn’t have much money. The ticket lady asked the father how many tickets he wanted. He proudly answered, “Let me have eight tickets so I can take my children and wife inside.” The ticket lady told him the price. The man didn’t have enough money and put his hands in his pocket. Seeing what was going on, my father pulled a thousand-dollar bill out and dropped it on the ground. Then he picked up the bill, called the man and said, “Excuse me, sir. This bill fell out of your pocket.” The man, with tears in his eyes, said, “Thank you, sir. This means a lot to my family.” My father and I didn’t watch the baseball game that night, but we were still happy.

    43.    What does the word “this” mean in the reading?

    (A) The writers father gave the man some money. (?)

    (B) The writer and his father were honest.

    (C) The man was proud of having six children.

    (D) The ticket lady gave the man some free tickets.

    44.    Which is NOT true about the family?

    (A) They didnt have the money to pay for the tickets. (?)

    (B) There were eight people in the family.

    (C) The father didnt know the tickets were so expensive.

    (D) The family didnt watch the baseball game in the end.

    45.    Why did the writer’s father drop the bill on the ground?

    (A) He wasnt careful enough, so the bill just dropped.

    (B) He wanted to help the man without hurting his feelings.

    (C) He wanted to play games with the man. (?)

    (D) He wanted the children to pick it up.

    Julians Saturday

     

    Saturday Activities

    8:00 a.m.

    get up

    8:30 a.m.

    eat breakfast

    9:30 a.m.

    study English

    12:00 p.m.

    eat lunch at home

    1:30 p.m.

    go to the park with Nick

    5:50 p.m.

    go to Grandmas house for dinner

    8:30 p.m.

    watch TV

    9:30 p.m.

    go to bed

    1.    When does Julian study English?

    (A) At 8:30 a.m.        (B) At 9:30 a.m.

    (C) At 12:00 a.m.        (D) At 8:30 p.m.

    2.    Who does Julian go to the park with?

    (A) Nick.            (B) Julia. (?)

    (C) Grandma.            (D) All of them. (?)

    3.    Where does Julian eat dinner?

    (A) At home.            (B) At Nick’s house. (?)

    (C) At his friends house. (?)    (D) At his grandmother’s house.

    (37~39)

    English has many useful phrases about colors. For example, you can call someone a “black sheep” to show that he or she is the bad person in the group. A “white lie” is a polite lie you tell so that you don’t hurt another person. But calling something a “white elephant” means you don’t need that thing. Someone who has a “green thumb” is good at gardening. And if you are “yellow,” that says that you are afraid of something. Someone who is “blue” is feeling bad. But a person who is “black and blue” got hurt all over. And when we say that something happens “once in a blue moon,” we are really saying that it seldom happens.

    phrase 片語

    thumb 拇指

    37.    Margaret came home with a large, ugly clock that she put in the corner of her room and never looked at again. What can we call the clock she bought?

    (A) A black sheep         (B) A white lie

    (C) A green thumb         (D) A white elephant

    38.    Peter used to give flowers to Vicky all the time, but now he only gives them to her once in a blue moon. How often does Peter give flowers to Vicky?

    (A) Almost never         (B) Very often

    (C) Every day            (D) Every month

    39. Mr. Johnson plants a lot of flowers in his front yard. They grow well and look very beautiful. What can we say about Mr. Johnson?

    (A) Mr. Johnson is yellow.

    (B) Mr. Johnson has a green thumb.

    (C) Mr. Johnson is a black sheep.

    (D) Mr. Johnson has a white elephant.

    What worries us more now is that more and more old people are dumped and nobody cares for them at all. Even though they are poor and sick, their family still leave them alone—they live alone, cook alone, eat alone, and go to the doctor alone….

    1.    When we say old people are “dumped,” it means they are _____ by their family.

    (A) killed    (B) picked    (C) left alone        (D) sold

     

     

    30. Which is the place that has the best air quality?

    (A) Ilan.    (B) Hualien.    (C) Taoyuan.    (D) Taipei.

    31.    Which is the place that has the worst air quality?

    (A) Hualien.    (B) Taoyuan.    (C) Kaohsiung.    (D) Taipei

    32.    Which is true?

    (A) Ilan’s air quality is better than Hualien’s.

    (B) Taipeis air quality is better than Taichungs.

    (C) Taichungs air quality is worse than Chiayi’s.

    (D) Chiayi’s air quality is as bad as Taichung’s.

     

    A suggested check list for the reading comprehension test

    _____ 1.     是否符合測驗目標?

    _____ 2.     各選文是否有不同主題、風格、體裁,且難易適中?

    _____ 3.     選文是否兼顧教育性、知識性、趣味性,並符合考生之生活、學習經驗及認知能力?

    _____ 4.     題幹及選項之文字是否與選文相近?

    _____ 5.     測驗內容是否會涉及文本外之常識或知識,或僅憑常識或知識,無須閱讀文本即可作答?

    _____ 6.     題幹中如果使用否定敘述,是否已用大寫字母強調否定字詞?

    _____ 7.     答案是否明確、唯一,以免引起困擾與爭議?

    _____ 8.     正答與誘答選項之字數、難度是否接近?

    _____ 9.     誘答選項是否具誘答力?

    _____10.     是否knowledge (知識), comprehension (理解), application (應用), analysis (分析), synthesis (綜合), evaluation (評鑑)各項能力均已分配適量之考題 參考(III之雙向細目表)

    D. Complete the blanks with words

    1.    S____e is standing over there. Do you know him?

    2.    I would like to mail this p_____e to the USA.

    3.    A: Have you ever seen a d_____n?

    B: No, never.

    4.    It rained all day. I felt so b_____d at home.

    5.    Do you have any A_____n friends?

    A suggested check list for the blank-completion test

    _____ 1.     是否符合測驗目標?

    _____ 2.     每題題幹是否提供足夠之解題線索?

    _____ 3.     題幹及選項之文字是否與選文相近?

    _____ 4.     答案是否明確、唯一,是否允許多組答案?

    E.    Translation

    1.     Linda的舞會是這個星期六晚上在Vicky家。

    ________________________________________________________

    2.     我最喜歡的飲料就是有很多糖的水果牛奶。

    ________________________________________________________   

    3.     我的妹妹們已經把草莓放在冰淇淋上面了,而且常起來很好。

    ________________________________________________________

    4.     這個城市的公車司機幫助人們帶腳踏車上公車。

    ________________________________________________________

    5.     A: Tony的舞會將在四樓。

    B: 我要如何到那裡?

    ________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________

    1.     Linda的舞會是這個星期六晚上在Vicky家。

    Lindas party is at Vickys house this Saturday night.

    2.     我最喜歡的飲料就是有很多糖的水果牛奶。

    My favorite drink is fruit milk with a lot of sugar.

    3.     我的妹妹們已經把草莓放在冰淇淋上面了,而且常起來很好。

    My sisters have already put the strawberries on the ice cream, and it tastes great.

    4.     這個城市的公車司機幫助人們帶腳踏車上公車。

    The bus drivers in this city helps people take their bicycles on the bus.   

    5.     A: Tony的舞會將在四樓。

    B: 我要如何到那裡?

    A: Tony’s ball will be at the fourth floor.

    B: How can I get there?

    A suggested check list for the blank-completion test

    _____ 1.     是否符合測驗目標?

    _____ 2.     每題題幹是否用自然的中文表達文意?

    _____ 3.     答案是否明確、唯一,是否允許多組答案?

    _____ 1.     是否符合測驗目標?

    _____ 2.     每題題幹是否用自然的中文表達文意?

    _____ 3.     答案是否明確、唯一,是否允許多組答案?

    F.     Others

    App. 1 How to calculate discrimination values

    傳統測驗理論中,難度表示通過人數百分比,鑑別度為高分組答對百分比減低分組答對百分比。

    如果有75人接受文法測驗,高、低分組(即整個測驗中得高分的前27%,得低分的後27%)各有18人、12人答對某個題目,試問題目

    鑑別度是多少呢?難度指數是多少?

    此題無法得知所有答對人數,

    只能以高、低分兩組人的比例做推估,

    75*27%=20.25,假設高分組有20人,低分組亦有20人,

    難度 = 答對人數 / 總人數

    =(18+12)/(20+20) = 0.75

    鑑別度 = 高分組答對百分比 - 低分組答對百分比

    = 18/20 - 12/20

    = 0.3

    V. Types of assessment (CEF document, p. 183)

    Norm-referencing is the placement of learners in rank order (among their peers). Criterion-refering imlies the mapping of the continuum of proficiency levels in relation to the total criterion space.

    1

    Achievement assessment

    Proficiency assessment

    2

    Norm-referencing (NR)

    Criterion-referencing (CR)

    3

    Mastery learning CR

    Continuum CR

    4

    Continuous assessment

    Fixed assessment points

    5

    Formative assessment

    Summative assessment

    6

    Direct assessment

    Indirect assessment

    7

    Performance assessment

    Knowledge assessment

    8

    Subjective assessment

    Objective assessment

    9

    Checklist rating

    Performance rating

    10

    Impression

    Guided judgment

    11

    Holistic assessment

    Analytic assessment

    12

    Series assessment

    Category assessment

    13

    Assessment by others

    Self-assessment

     

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