3D實物列印機時代來臨了---3-D printer @ 網路影片 :: 隨意窩 Xuite日誌
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    2010100620143D實物列印機時代來臨了---3-D printer
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    舊金山南公園區各公司行號銷售的東西,大體而言不是網路科技,就是三明治和墨西哥餅捲。Bespoke Innovation打算銷售的,卻是量身訂作的義肢。

    該公司運用所謂3D列印(三維列印或三維噴印)科技最新的進展,製作以繡花圖案皮革、閃光金屬或訂製者指定的任何材質包裹的義肢外殼。
     
    桑密特是Bespoke的創辦人之一,他和另一位擔任整形外科醫師的合夥人即將啟用一間工作室,準備在這裡販賣義肢外殼,同時實驗印製全套的量身訂作義肢。這些義肢的製作成本僅及傳統方法的十分之一。
     
    桑密特說:「我想創造一種具有某種程度人性化特色的義肢。義肢是許多人日常生活中很重要的一部分。遺憾的是,市面上現有的類似產品設計都不夠精良。」
     
    3D列印機與一般的印表機完全是兩回事。它的原理是,藉由將一層材料貼在另一層上面以製成物件,這些材料通常是塑膠或金屬。

    這種科技原本是廠商及設計師用以製作原型的工具,如今卻已脫胎換骨,大大不同。
     
    這種技術最近突然廣泛運用,促成多種此前不可能存在的生意崛起以至欣欣向榮,它們製作銷售的產品包括iPhone手機機殼、燈具、球形門握把、珠寶、手提包、香水瓶、服飾、建築模型等。
     
    加州的一家新創公司甚至以這種方法建造房子。它的列印機架設於牽引式掛車上,根據電腦提供的樣式,噴出層層的特殊水泥,製成整面的牆,再將所有的牆連結起來,形成一棟房子的基本架構。
     
    這是一種以滑鼠點擊取代鎯頭、鐵釘及工人的製造方法。倡導這種技術的人指出,3D列印藉由省去人力可徹底改變製造的經濟學並重振美國的經濟,因為創意與巧思將取代勞力成本,成為許多產品最關鍵的考量。
     
    桑密特說:「這麼一來,把生產線移到海外變得毫無好處可言,運費反而更高。」
     
    從免費的應用程式到Alibre、Autodesk等公司提供的精密程式,供設計用的軟體程式為數甚多,讓一個人得以在自家設計一項產品,然後將設計圖交給Shapeways之類的公司,委託對方印製產品後寄回。

    Alibre執行長葛雷森說:「我們讓那些尋常百姓能夠把自己的構想化為具體而真實的產品。」他又說,他的客戶設計過的東西包括骨董車的零件、溜溜球,甚至DNA分析儀的組件。
     
    葛雷森說:「我們使許多人從個人化晉級到商業化階段。」
     
    正規的3 D列印機價格低者1萬美元,高者超過10萬美元,視功能而定。Stratasys與3D Systems執業界之牛耳。MakerBot Industries有一種非專業型列印機,售價不到1000美元。

    要將這種技術推廣到製造業以外的領域,確實是個挑戰。量身訂作可能比大量生產來得貴,所需時間也比較長。在多數人對大量消費的優點已十分習慣的這個世界裡,量身訂作似乎顯得有些突兀。
     
    在3D列印機已有明顯改進,成本與用於製作產品的材料同時下降的局面下,許多新公司相繼出現。
     
    阿姆斯特丹的Freedom of Creation專門為飯店及餐館設計並印製具異國風味的家具及配件。它還製作蘋果公司的iPhone機殼、萊雅公司的眼霜瓶,以及珠寶、手提包供其網站販售。
     
    現年36歲,約10年前創辦Freedom of Creation的凱塔南說:「我們一貫的目標是把這種科技成果送給消費者,而不是使它成為NASA與大廠商的機密。我們剛起步時,大家都認為我是瘋子。」
     
    凱塔南表示,他的公司可以承擔設計風險,因為在接到訂單之前不必印製任何物件。
     
    總公司設在科羅拉多州明特恩的LGM公司以3D列印機為建築公司製出建築物與度假村的模型。

    該公司創辦人奧維里說:「我們以往經常費時2個月設計價格高達10萬美元的模型。這種工作形態已成歷史,因為開發商不肯再花這麼多的錢。」

    奧維里又說,他現在用建築師的設計圖搭配自行研發的3D列印機軟體,製作只要2000美元的模型。他一個晚上就可以做好一個。
     
    接下來,LGM計畫設計並印製建築物的球形門把及其他配件,創造一些獨一無二的產品。奧維里說:「我們正逐漸捨棄手工藝,邁向數位工藝的新境界。」


    SAN FRANCISCO — Businesses in the South Park district of San Francisco generally sell either Web technology or sandwiches and burritos. Bespoke Innovations plans to sell designer body parts.

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    Peter DaSilva for The New York Times
    Scott Summit, co-founder of Bespoke Innovations, with a prosthetic limb.
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    Kevin Moloney for The New York Times
    Charles Overy, founder of LGM, with a model of a resort in Vail, Colo. “We used to take two months to build $100,000 models,” he said, adding that now they cost about $2,000.
    The company is using advances in a technology known as 3-D printing to create prosthetic limb casings wrapped in embroidered leather, shimmering metal or whatever else someone might want.

    Scott Summit, a co-founder of Bespoke, and his partner, an orthopedic surgeon, are set to open a studio this fall where they will sell the limb coverings and experiment with printing entire customized limbs that could cost a tenth of comparable artificial limbs made using traditional methods. And they will be dishwasher-safe, too.

    “I wanted to create a leg that had a level of humanity,” Mr. Summit said. “It’s unfortunate that people have had a product that’s such a major part of their lives that was so underdesigned.”

    A 3-D printer, which has nothing to do with paper printers, creates an object by stacking one layer of material — typically plastic or metal — on top of another, much the same way a pastry chef makes baklava with sheets of phyllo dough.

    The technology has been radically transformed from its origins as a tool used by manufacturers and designers to build prototypes.

    These days it is giving rise to a string of never-before-possible businesses that are selling iPhone cases, lamps, doorknobs, jewelry, handbags, perfume bottles, clothing and architectural models. And while some wonder how successfully the technology will make the transition from manufacturing applications to producing consumer goods, its use is exploding.

    A California start-up is even working on building houses. Its printer, which would fit on a tractor-trailer, would use patterns delivered by computer, squirt out layers of special concrete and build entire walls that could be connected to form the basis of a house.

    It is manufacturing with a mouse click instead of hammers, nails and, well, workers. Advocates of the technology say that by doing away with manual labor, 3-D printing could revamp the economics of manufacturing and revive American industry as creativity and ingenuity replace labor costs as the main concern around a variety of goods.

    “There is nothing to be gained by going overseas except for higher shipping charges,” Mr. Summit said.

    A wealth of design software programs, from free applications to the more sophisticated offerings of companies including Alibre and Autodesk, allows a person to concoct a product at home, then send the design to a company like Shapeways, which will print it and mail it back.

    “We are enabling a class of ordinary people to take their ideas and turn those into physical, real products,” said J. Paul Grayson, Alibre’s chief executive. Mr. Grayson said his customers had designed parts for antique cars, yo-yos and even pieces for DNA analysis machines.

    “We have a lot of individuals going from personal to commercial,” Mr. Grayson said.

    Manufacturers and designers have used 3-D printing technology for years, experimenting on the spot rather than sending off designs to be built elsewhere, usually in Asia, and then waiting for a model to return. Boeing, for example, might use the technique to make and test air-duct shapes before committing to a final design.

    Depending on the type of job at hand, a typical 3-D printer can cost from $10,000 to more than $100,000. Stratasys and 3D Systems are among the industry leaders. And MakerBot Industries sells a hobbyist kit for under $1,000.

    Moving the technology beyond manufacturing does pose challenges. Customized products, for example, may be more expensive than mass-produced ones, and take longer to make. And the concept may seem out of place in a world trained to appreciate the merits of mass consumption.

    But as 3-D printing machines have improved and fallen in cost along with the materials used to make products, new businesses have cropped up.

    Freedom of Creation, based in Amsterdam, designs and prints exotic furniture and other fixtures for hotels and restaurants. It also makes iPhone cases for Apple, eye cream bottles for L’Oreal and jewelry and handbags for sale on its Web site.

    Various designers have turned to the company for clothing that interlaces plastic to create form-hugging blouses, while others have requested spiky coverings for lights that look as if they could be the offspring of a sea urchin and a lamp shade.

    “The aim was always to bring this to consumers instead of keeping it a secret at NASA and big manufacturers,” said Janne Kyttanen, 36, who founded Freedom of Creation about 10 years ago. “Everyone thought I was a lunatic when we started.”

    His company can take risks with “out there” designs since it doesn’t need to print an object until it is ordered, Mr. Kyttanen said. Ikea can worry about mass appeal.

    LGM, based in Minturn, Colo., uses a 3-D printing machine to create models of buildings and resorts for architectural firms.

    “We used to take two months to build $100,000 models,” said Charles Overy, the founder of LGM. “Well, that type of work is gone because developers aren’t putting up that type of money anymore.”

    Now, he said, he is building $2,000 models using an architect’s design and homegrown software for a 3-D printer. He can turn around a model in one night.

    Next, the company plans to design and print doorknobs and other fixtures for buildings, creating unique items. “We are moving from handcraft to digital craft,” Mr. Overy said.

    But Contour Crafting, based in Los Angeles, has pushed 3-D printing technology to its limits.

    Based on research done by Dr. Behrokh Khoshnevis, an engineering professor at the University of Southern California, Contour Crafting has created a giant 3-D printing device for building houses. The start-up company is seeking money to commercialize a machine capable of building an entire house in one go using a machine that fits on the back of a tractor-trailer.

    The 3-D printing wave has caught the attention of some of the world’s biggest technology companies. Hewlett-Packard, the largest paper-printer maker, has started reselling 3-D printing machines made by Stratasys. And Google uses the CADspan software from LGM to help people using its SketchUp design software turn their creations into 3-D printable objects.

    At Bespoke, Mr. Summit has built a scanning contraption to examine limbs using a camera. After the scan, a detailed image is transmitted to a computer, and Mr. Summit can begin sculpting his limb art.

    He uses a 3-D printer to create plastic shells that fit around the prosthetic limbs, and then wraps the shells in any flexible material the customer desires, be it an old bomber jacket or a trusty boot.

    “We can do a midcentury modern or a Harley aesthetic if that’s what someone wants,” Mr. Summit said. “If we can get to flexible wood, I am totally going to cut my own leg off.”

    Mr. Summit and his partner, Kenneth B. Trauner, the orthopedic surgeon, have built some test models of full legs that have sophisticated features like body symmetry, locking knees and flexing ankles. One artistic design is metal-plated in some areas and leather-wrapped in others.

    “It costs $5,000 to $6,000 to print one of these legs, and it has features that aren’t even found in legs that cost $60,000 today,” Mr. Summit said.

    “We want the people to have input and pick out their options,” he added. “It’s about going from the Model T to something like a Mini that has 10 million permutations.”

    資料來源:紐約時報、聯合報紐時精選

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