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【媒庫文選】印度為什麼愛上瞭一部關於廁所的電影

Why India Is Falling in Love With a Movie About Toilets

印度為什麼愛上瞭一部關於廁所的電影

Liz Neisloss 莉茲·尼斯洛斯

Amovie that tackles the subject of open defecation may not sound like romantic entertainment, but audiences across India think the current Bollywood hit “Toilet: A Love Story” delivers just that.

At a time of slumping ticket sales and superstar flops, the story of Jaya, a newly married woman who leaves her husband because his home has no toilet, is flushed with success.

Jaya, who grew up with a toilet in her house, becomes outraged when she learns there is no toilet in her new marital home. Western audiences might be startled by more than just the basic plot: Shortly after marriage, Jaya is invited to join the village women in their nightly “lota party.”

The women go to a field at night to relieve themselves carrying their “lota” or water vessels to clean themselves afterwards. “Shed all your inhibitions台中商標申請查詢 and get down to business,” one woman urges an unwilling Jaya.

In a country where women defecating in the open face the possibility of rape, it\'s no surprise to Indian audiences why women would group together for this activity.

The lead actor, Bollywood megastar Akshay Kumar, kicked off the film\'s promotional tour by digging a pit toilet.

Not the stuff Bollywood dreams are usually made of, but it\'s a fertile topic for Indians who are vividly aware of the problem of open defecation.

And it\'s become highly political: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has made “Clean India” a prominent government campaign. This includes a spree of nationwide toilet building, according to government tallies, roughly 45 million over 3 years.

Despite this effort, more than 50% of Indians in rural areas -- nearly half a billion people -- still defecate in the open.

And India\'s cities aren\'t spared; An estimated 7.5% in urban areas still relieve themselves in the open.

Critics gave the movie mixed reviews, with many saying it reeks of propaganda for the Modi government. Audiences didn\'t seem to care. And neither does the film\'s director and editor, Shree Narayan Singh, “It addresses a problem of national magnitude and is a step in the right direction. I think the people\'s verdict is proof enough.”

Social messages are classic fodder for Bollywood movies. Still, Singh says this movie was far from a sure bet. “‘Toilet’ was not everyone\'s cup of tea. When I first told people that I was directing a film called ‘Toilet - A love story,’ the initial reaction was always either an uncomfortable silence or a snigger.”

Movie critic Tanul Thakur, among those who termed“Toilet” propaganda, admits he was surprised by the film\'s topic, “A film like that hasn\'t really been made in India. It\'s very classic Bollywood in some ways, one man trying to restore right in his world. But definitely the topic is different.”

Thakur doubts it\'s the topic alone that propelled this film to success. He credits Akshay Kumar\'s box office clout,along with a large spoonful of Bollywood sugar, in helping this message go down well.

There\'s a peppy Hindi song under the toilet building scenes so viewers might just dance in their seats as the husband selects the perfect toilet and hardware. This is intercut with shots of villagers squatting in fields to defecate.

India\'s largely middle class ticket buyers aren\'t squeamish about seeing people squatting in fields. “They\'ve grown up largely oblivious to this other India,” Thakur says. “But they know that open defecation is a major social reality for a lot of people.”

India\'s moviegoers will soon move on, but the real toilet problem will linger.

Sociologist Bindeshwar Pathak has spent decades championing the cause of sanitation in India and knows toilets aren\'t an easy sell. In rural areas, many consider defecating in an open space healthier and having a toilet in the home violates its purity. As the father in “Toilet” pointedly asks,“How can we build a toilet in the same courtyard where we worship?”

Pathak thinks the movie\'s success will have a positive impact and motivate women in particular.

探討露天如廁問題的電影或許不像是浪漫娛樂片,但印度各地的觀眾認為,當前的寶萊塢大片《廁所:一個愛情故事》達到瞭這種效果。

在票房暴跌和超級明星過氣的形勢下,新婚女子賈亞因為丈夫傢裡沒有廁所而離開他的故事卻大獲成功。

賈亞從小傢裡就有廁所,當她得知她的新婚房沒有廁所時感到非常震驚。西方觀眾可能不光被基本情節嚇瞭一跳:婚後不久,賈亞受邀參加村裡婦女的晚間“洛塔派對”。

婦女們晚上到田野裡如廁,帶著“洛塔”也就是水壺,以便事後台灣申請商標凈身。一位婦女勸說不情願的賈亞:“別拘著瞭,幹正事吧。”

在一個露天如廁的女性可能會遭強奸的國傢,印度觀眾對於女性為何要結伴做這件事並不感到驚訝。

扮演男主角的寶萊塢巨星阿克沙伊·庫馬爾啟動巡回宣傳活動的方式是挖瞭個旱廁。

這不是寶萊塢夢想的慣常成分,但台中商標申請流程對於清楚意識到露天如廁問題的印度人來說是個說不盡的話題。

而且它開始具有很強的政治意味:印度總理納倫德拉·莫迪把“潔凈印度”作為重要的政府運動。這包括在全國范圍掀起修建廁所的熱潮,按照政府數據,要在三年間修建大約4500萬個廁所。

盡管如此努力,但印度農村地區仍有超過50%的人(將近5億)在露天如廁。

印度的城市也不例外:城市地區有大約7.5%的人仍然在露天如廁。

影評人對該片褒貶不一,許台中商標註冊類別多人認為它明顯是在為莫迪政府做宣傳。觀眾似乎不在乎。該片的導演和剪輯師什裡·納拉揚·辛格也不在乎:“它講述瞭一個具有全國意義的問題,朝著正確方向邁出瞭一步。我認為大傢的評判足以說明一切。”

社會信息是寶萊塢電影的典型素材。不過,辛格說,當初對該片根本沒有把握。“《廁所》並不合所有人的心意。我最早告訴大傢我在執導一部叫做《廁所:一個愛情故台中註冊商標流程事》的電影時,(對方的)第一反應始終要麼是尷尬的沉默,要麼是竊笑。”

影評人達努爾·塔庫爾是把《廁所》歸為宣傳的人之一。他承認,該片的題材令他驚訝。“印度其實沒有拍攝過這樣的電影。從某些方面看,它是非常典型的寶萊塢影片,一個人試圖在他的世界裡匡正揚善。但題材絕對是不同的。”

塔庫爾並不認為單憑題材就使該片獲得瞭成功。他認為,是阿克沙伊·庫馬爾的票房號召力和豐富的寶萊塢元素使該片獲得瞭熱捧。

修建廁所的畫面配有熱情洋溢的印地語歌曲,所以在丈夫挑選完美的馬桶和五金配件時,觀眾們可以幹脆在座位上起舞。這當中還穿插瞭村民們蹲在田野裡如廁的鏡頭。

印度以中產階級為主的購票者看到有人蹲在田野裡並不覺得反感。塔庫爾說:“他們從小到大基本不註意印度的這一面。但他們知道,露天如廁對許多人來說是個重要的社會現實。”

印度的電影觀眾很快會另有所好,但現實中的廁所問題仍將存在。

社會學傢賓德什瓦爾·帕塔克用瞭數十年時間為印度的衛生事業奔走,知道廁所並不容易得到接受。在農村地區,許多人認為在露天場所如廁比較衛生,傢裡有廁所會有損其潔凈。正如《廁所》中的父親嚴厲質問的那樣:“我們怎麼能在拜神的院子裡建廁所呢?”

帕塔克認為該片的成功將產生積極影響,尤其對女性有激勵作用。(編譯/葛雪蕾)




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