201703250013James while John had had had had had had had had had had had

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James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher」一個表示用詞歧義和標點符號重要性的英文句子;[1]然而,句子本有的標點符號被語調、[2]重音和停頓代替了,結果它們只能通過對話聽出卻無法寫到紙上翻譯[3]在對於人類怎樣處理資訊的研究中,該句經常會被用來說明標點符號的重要性,萬國翻譯社們應倚重標點符號來表達句子的意思,而非用語調、重音或停頓翻譯[4]

目錄

  • 1 句子的背景和意思
  • 2 應用
  • 3 參見
  • 4 參考資料

句子的背景和意思[

有兩個學生,James(詹姆斯)和John(約翰)。他們需要在一個英語考試上描述一個曾經著涼的人。約翰寫的句子是「The man had a cold」,這句在文法上不正確;而詹姆斯寫的句子在文法上正確:「The man had had a cold」翻譯「由於詹姆斯的答案是正確的,所以它對於老師有一個較好的效果。」

如果加了標點符號,這句句子會比較清楚:

James翻譯社 while John had had "had"翻譯社 had had "had had"; "had had" had had a better effect on the teacher.[5]

詹姆斯在當約翰用「had」時用了「had had」,老師認為「had had」的效果更好。

如果重排句子,意思會更清楚:

James had had "had had"翻譯社 while John had had "had"; "had had" had had a better effect on the teacher.

詹姆斯用了「had had」,而約翰用了「had」,老師認為「had had」的效果更好翻譯

應用[

這句子可以作為一個文法遊戲[6][7][8]或一條考試題目,[1][2]考生需要賦予合適的標點符號來明晰句子意思翻譯Hans Reichenbach在1947年用了一個類似的句子給讀者作為練習(「John where Jack...」),來表達語言的不同階級,例如目標語言及元語言翻譯[9]在研究如何人讓他們的環境中的信息意識,這句話來演示如何武斷的決定可以大幅改變的意義,類似於如何,標點和句秀引號的變化,老師輪流喜歡詹姆斯的工作和約翰工作。 (「詹姆斯,而約翰不得不」,「...」,或「詹姆斯,約翰不得不」不得不,「......」)[10]

這句話也可以用來顯示語義含糊的詞「有」,以及展示用一個字,提一個字之間的差異。[11]它也被用來作為一個例子,如何可以得到複雜的語言翻譯而仍然是語法上是正確的。[12]

參見[

參考資料[

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Magonet翻譯社 Jonathan. A rabbi reads the Bible 2nd. SCM-Canterbury Press. 2004: 19 [2009-04-30]. ISBN 9780334029526. You may remember an old classroom test in English language. What punctuation marks do you have to add to this sentence so as to make sense of it? 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Dundes, Alan; Carl R. Pagter. When you're up to your ass in alligators: more urban folklore from the paperwork empire Illustrated. Wayne State University Press. 1987: 135 [2009-04-30]. ISBN 0814318673. The object of this and similar tests is to make sense of a series of words by figuring out the correct intonation pattern. 
  3. ^ Hudson, Grover. Essential introductory linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. 1999: 372 [2009-04-30]. ISBN 0631203044. Writing is secondary to speech翻譯社 in history and in the fact that speech and not writing is fundamental to the human species. 
  4. ^ van de Velde, Roger G. Text and thinking: on some roles of thinking in text interpretation Illustrated. Walter de Gruyter. 1992: 43 [2009-04-30]. ISBN 3110132508. In scanning across lines翻譯社 readers also make use of the information parts carried along with the punctuatuion markes: a period, a dash, a colon翻譯社 a semicolon or a comma may signal different degrees of integration/separation between the groupings. 
  5. ^ "Problem C: Operator Jumble". 31st ACM International Collegiate Programming Conference翻譯社 2006–2007.
  6. ^ Amon, Mike. GADFLY. Financial Times. 2004-01-28 [2009-04-30]. HAD up to here? So were readers of last week's column, invited to punctuate "Smith where Jones had had had had had had had had had had had the examiners approval." 
  7. ^ Jackson, Howard. Grammar and Vocabulary: A Resource Book for Students.
  8. ^ 3802 - Operator Jumble
  9. ^ Reichenbach翻譯社 Hans (1947) Elements of symbolic logic. London: Collier-MacMillan. Exercise 3-4翻譯社 p.405; solution p.417.
  10. ^ Weick, Karl E. Making Sense of the Organization 8th. Wiley-Blackwell. 2005: 186–187 [2009-04-30]. ISBN 0631223193. Once a person has generated/bracketed part of the stream, then the activities of punctuation and connection (parsing) can occur in an effort to transform the raw data into information. 
  11. ^ Lecercle, Jean-Jacques. The violence of language Illustrated.
  12. ^ Hollin翻譯社 Clive R. Contemporary Psychology: An Introduction Illustrated.

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